11. Israeli Apartheid

Israeli Apartheid A VP

Israeli Apartheid B VP

Israeli Apartheid 1 VP

Israeli Apartheid 2 VP

Israeli Apartheid 3 VP

Israeli Apartheid 4 VP

Israeli Apartheid 5 VP




Website for Apartheid-Free
["We invite faith
communities, congregations,
and organizations as well as
other communities of conscience
to join us by signing the
pledge to dismantle apartheid.
If you are an individual,
organize within your
community to take collective
action against apartheid.”]

Website for Apartheid-Free Communities
["For decades, the Palestinian people
have faced Israeli occupation and
systematic human rights abuses that
constitute apartheid. AFSC stands
in solidarity with the Palestinian
people and their call for full and
equal rights. We invite Quaker
meetings and other communities
to join us in building an
apartheid-free world.”]

Website for “The Comprehensive
Information Portal on Israeli Apartheid

[“(A) joint project between The
Institute for Palestine Studies
(IPS), and the Global Organization
against Racial Discrimination and
Segregation (AARDi), launched in
December 2020.”]

Website for “It is Apartheid” 

Website for Israeli Apartheid Week

Website for Together Against Apartheid


Apartheid in Palestine

Ageel, Ghana, editor. Foreword
by Richard Falk, Contributions by
Samar El-Bekai, Reem Skeik,
Tali Shapiro, Rela Mazali, Huwaida
Arraf, James Cairns, Susan Ferguson,
Abigail B. Bakan, Yasmeen Abu-Laban,
Keith Hammond, Sherene Razack,
Edward C. Corrigan, Ramzy Baroud and
Rafeef Ziadah. 
Apartheid in Palestine:
Hard Laws and Harder Experiences
University of Alberta Press, 2016.

Ariley, Gal. Israel's Regime
: Between
Democracy and Apartheid,
Cambridge University Press, 2021. 

41s1hpe0eoL. SX331 BO1,204,203,200

Azoulay, Ariella and Adi Ophir
[transl. by Tal Haran]. The One-State
Condition: Occupation and
Democracy in Israel/Palestine
Stanford University Press, 2013.

Isr and apartheid cover-m47

Badil. "Israel and the Crime
of Apartheid
: Towards a
Comprehensive Analysis,” al majdal,
Issue No.47, Autumn 2011.

Zionist Israel and Aparthied South Africa

Badran, Amneh. Zionist Israel
and Apartheid South Africa
Civil society and peace building
in ethnic-national states,
Routledge, 2013.

Peace or Apartheid

Bishara, Marwan.
Palestine/Israel: Peace or
Apartheid: Prospects for
Resolving the Conflict
, Zed
Books, 2001 

Apartheid South Africa! Apartheid Israel?

Brown, Brian J. Apartheid
South Africa! Apartheid Israel?

Church in the Market Place
Publications, 2021.

Carey, Chomsky - The New Intifada

Carey, Roane, ed., Noam Chomsky,
Introduction, The New Intifada:
Resisting Israel’s Apartheid
Verso, 2001. [Contributors: Ali
Abunimah, Ghassan Andoni, Omar
Barghouti, Nidal Barham, Azmi Bishara,
Noam Chomsky, Robert Fisk,
Muna Hamzeh, Hussein Ibish, Jan
de Jong, Jennifer Loewenstein, Nancy
Murray, Allegra Pacheco, Mouin
Rabbani, Glenn Robinson, Sara
Roy, Edward Said, Salman Abu Sitta,
Gita Svirsky, Ahdaf Soueif.]

Palestine - Peace Not Apartheid

Carter, Jimmy. Palestine: Peace Not
, Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Neoliberal Apartheid

Clarno, Andy. Neoliberal
and South Africa after 1994
University of Chicago
Press, 2017.

Corporate Watch [written
and researched by Anderson,
Tom and Theresa Cooper,
Jack Curry, Georgia Clough,
Pete Jones]. Targeting Israeli
Apartheid: A Boycott Divestment
and Sanctions Handbook
Corporate Watch, 2012.

Uri Davis - Apartheid Within

Davis, Uri. Apartheid Israel:
Possibilities for the Struggle
, Zed Books, 2003.

Why Israel

Dadoo, Suraya and Firoz
Osman. Why Israel?: The
Anatomy of Zionist
Apartheid – A South African
, ‎Porcupine Press,
January 12, 2015.

Davis, Uri. Apartheid Israel:
Possibilities for the Struggle
, Zed Books, 2004.


Davis, Uri. Israel, an Apartheid
, Zed Books, 1987.

Dawson, Ashley and Bill V.
Mullen, eds., Against Apartheid:
The Case for Boycotting Israeli
, Haymarket
Books, 2015.

Dugard - Confronting Apartheid

Dugard, John. Confronting
Apartheid: A personal history
of South Africa, Namibia and
, Jacana Media, 2019.

Human Rights  - John Dugard

Dugard, John. Human Rights
and the South African Legal
, Princeton University
Press, 1978.

Settler Colonialism

Engler, Yves. Canada
and Israel: Building
, Fernwood
Publishing, 2010.

Settler Colonialism

Englert, Sai. Settler
Colonialism: An
, Pluto
Press, 2022

Justice for Some

Erakat, Noura. Justice for
Some: Law and the Question
of Palestine
, Stanford
University Press, 2019.

Falk, Richard and
Virginia Q. Tilley. 
Practices towards the
Palestinian People and
the Question of Apartheid
Palestine and the Israeli
Occupation, Issue No. 1”
(Beirut: UNESCWA,

is-israel-an-apartheid med hr

ICAHD-USA has provided
an easy-to-read summary
of a 15-month study conducted
an international group of
legal analysts. The 2009 study 
commissioned by the South
African Human Sciences
Research Council (HSRC)
and funded by the South
African Department of Foreign
Affairs. Read and download
the summary here, download
the full report [300+ pages] here.

Engler - Building Apartheid

Engler, Yves. Canada and Israel:
Building Apartheid
, Red
Publishing / Fernwood Publishing,

Decolonizing Israel Halper

Halper, Jeff. Decolonizing Israel,
Liberating Palestine Zionism, Settler
Colonialism, and the Case for One
Democratic State
, Pluto Press, 2021.
["An extremely convincing and
persuasive argument that the
only conceivable future for justice
and peace necessitates a process
of decolonization and equal
rights for all" - Electronic Intifada]

419stlBbo1L. SX330 BO1,204,203,200

Hussein, Cherine. The
Re-Emergence of the Single
State Solution in Palestine/Israel:
Countering an Illusion

(Routledge Studies on the
Arab-Israeli Conflict),
Routledge, 2015.

Apartheid Israel

Jacobs, Sean and Jon Soske
Apartheid Israel:
The Politics of an Analogy
Haymarket Books, 2015.
Contributors include Andy
Clarno, Bill Freund, Mahmood
Mamdani, Heidi Grunebaum,
Shireen Hassim, Sean Jacobs,
Robin D. G. Kelley, Arianna
Lissoni, Achille Mbembe,
Marissa Moorman, Jon Soske,
T.J. Tallie, Salim Vally.

Defense of White Power

Jaster, Robert Scott. The
Defence of White Power: South
African Foreign Policy under
(Studies in International
Security), ‎ Palgrave
Macmillan, 1988.

216d3UztUbL. SX302 BO1,204,203,200

Joseph, Benjamin. Besieged
Bedfellows: Israel and the
Land of Apartheid
, Praeger,

Do It Yourself Apartheid

Palestinian Grassroots
Anti-Apartheid Wall
Campaign, Do - It - Yourself
Apartheid in Palestine | Israel
The World Bank and ‘Sustainable
Development' of the Palestinian
Ghettos (Italian), Stop the Wall, 2005.

Palestine, Israeli Apartheid, and Antisemitism

Malloy, Sean and Doug
Lorimer, Jonathan Cook,
Thier, Barry Sheppard.
Palestine, Israeli Apartheid &
, Resistance Books. 

Middle East Project of the
Democracy and Government
Programme, Human Sciences
Research Council of South Africa.
Occupation, Colonialism,
Apartheid? A re-assessment of
Isarael’s practices in the occupied
Palestinian territories under
international law
V 1.2, Human
Sciences Research Council,
Cape Town, 2009.

Israel and South Africa - The Many Faces of Apartheid

Pappé, Iilan, editor. Israel and
South Africa: 
The Many Faces
of Apartheid
, Zed Books, 2015.

The Unspoken Alliance

The Unspoken
Alliance: Israel's Secret
Relationship with Apartheid
South Africa
, Pantheon, 2010.
Weaved into the author’s
fascinating narrative lies the
disturbing debate about the
degree of moral end political
congruence that might have
existed between the two allies,
Israel’s political and defense
establishment on the one hand
and the Afrikaner ‘master race’
on the other.” —Shlomo
Ben-Ami, Foreign Minister
of Israel, 2000-2001]

1107622816.01. SCLZZZZZZZ SX500

Rouhana, Nadim N., ed.,
assisted by Sahar S. Huneidi.
Israel and its Palestinian
Citizens: Ethnic Privileges
in the Jewish State
Cambridge University
Press, 2017.

Rouhana, Nadim N.
Palestinian Citizens in
an Ethnic Jewish State:
Identities in Conflict
Yale University
Press, 1997.

Ruebner - Israel - Democracy or Apartheid State

Rueben, Josh. Israel:
Democracy or Apartheid State?
Olive Brance Press, 2017.

Occupier's law Israel and the West Bank

Shehadeh, Raja. Occupiers
 Law: Israel and the West
. Institute for Palestine
Studies, revised edition 1985.

a short guide to israeli apartheid

Snowdon, Alex. A Short Guide to
Israeli Apartheid
, Counterfire,


Suárez, Thomas. Palestine
How Zionism
Forged an Apartheid State
from River to Sea
Brance Press, 2022.

Apartheid is a Crime

Svensson, Mats, Ramzy
Baroud, Introduction. Apartheid
is a Crime (2nd Edition): Portraits
of the Israeli Occupation
of Palestine
, Cune Press, 2020.

Svensson - Crimes, Victims and Witnesses

Svensson, Mats
(Photographer), Ramzy Baroud
Crimes, Victims
and Witnesses: Apartheid
in Palestine
, Real African
Publishers, 2013.

Tilley, Virginia, ed. Beyond
Occupation: Apartheid, Colonialism
and International Law in the
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Pluto Press, 2012.

Cracks in the Wall

White, Ben. Cracks in the Wall:
Beyond Apartheid in Palestine/Israel
Pluto Press, 2018.

Ben White Israeli Apartheid

White, Ben. Israeli Apartheid:
A Beginner's Guide
, Second
Edition, Pluto Press, 2014.

Younis, Mona. Liberation
and Democratization: 
South African and Palestinian
National Movements
University of Minnesota
Press, 1999. 

Zureik, Younis. The
Palestinians in Israel:
A Study in Internal
, Routledge & K.
Paul, 1979.


Documents and Articles

Adalah [The Legal Center for Arab
Minority Rights 
in Israel]. The
Discriminatory Laws Database
September 25, 2017.

Addameer [Prisoner Support
and Human Rights 
Al-Haq, Al Mezan Center for Human
Rights, Habitat International
Coalition [
Housing and Land
Rights Network].
and Maintaining an Apartheid
Regime over the Palestinian
People as a Whole,” January 7,
2022. Access the report
here or here.

Addameer [Prisoner Support
and Human Rights Association]
and the International Human Rights
Clinic at Harvard Law School.
“Apartheid in the Occupied West
Bank: A Legal Analysis of Israel’s
Actions,” February 28, 2022.
Access the report here.

Al-Haq Law in the Service of Man
(Al-Haq), Addameer Prisoner
Support and Human Rights
Association (Addameer), Al Mezan
Centre for Human Rights (Al Mezan),
Al-Quds University ‘Community
Action Center’ (CAC), the Jerusalem
Legal Aid and Human Rights Center
(JLAC), the Palestinian Initiative for
the Promotion of Global Dialogue
and Democracy (MIFTAH), the
Palestinian Centre for Human Rights
(PCHR), ​and the Civic Coalition for
Palestinian Rights in Jerusalem
(CCPRJ).  “Israeli Apartheid: Tool
of Zionist Settler Colonialism
November 29, 2022. ["This report
aims to expand on the current
apartheid discourse, and push for
the recognition of the colonial
practices of Israel, both past and
present, and its consistent use of
settler colonial policies against
the Palestinian people, recognising
the connection between the
Palestinian struggle for self-
determination and the wider,
global movement of indigenous
liberation against both colonialism
and other associated forms of
structural and institutionalised racism.”]

Apartheid-Free.org / "We invite
faith communities, congregations,
and organizations as well as other
communities of conscience to join
us in our common goal to dismantle
apartheid.” / "We came together in
2022 as an interdenominational
coalition of faith groups in North
America following the emerging
consensus among the international
human rights community that Israel’s
treatment of the Palestinian people
amounts to the Crime of Apartheid. /
We ask ourselves and our communities
to take a renewed public pledge
against all forms of racism, bigotry,
and oppression, including against
racist discrimination, Islamophobia,
antisemitism, and xenophobia in our
own communities. We seek to educate
ourselves and our communities about
the devastation of Palestinian lives
under military occupation, settler
colonialism, and apartheid, and about
the connections between settler
colonialism, racist oppression, and
the cult of security in Palestine/Israel
and in North America. / Inspired by
the anti-Apartheid movement that
toppled the Apartheid regime in South
Africa, we are building an
anti-apartheid movement and
encourage faith communities and
all communities of conscience to
step away from any and all support
to Israeli apartheid, occupation, and
settler colonialism. This coalition is
convened by the American Friends
Service Committee (AFSC)."

Basic Law: Israel –The Nation
State of the Jewish People
Unofficial English translation –
25 July 2018

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA) [United Nations]. "Israeli Practices towards
the Palestinian People and the Question of Apartheid
Palestine and the Israeli Occupation, Issue No. 1,
E/ESCWA/ECRI/2017/1. [74 pages - downloadable pdf.
"This report was commissioned by the Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) from
authors Mr. Richard Falk and Ms. Virginia Tilley.]

Human Sciences Research Council. “Occupation,
Colonialism, Apartheid? A re-assessment of Israel’s
practices in the occupied Palestinian territories under
international law
,” Capetown, South Africa, May, 2009.
["The analysis of apartheid in this study encompasses
three distinct issues: (1) the definition of apartheid;
(2) the status of the prohibition of apartheid
in international law; and (3) whether Israel’s practices
in the OPT amount to a breach of that prohibition….
Israel appears clearly to be implementing and sustaining
policies intended to maintain its domination over
Palestinians in the OPT and to suppress opposition
of any form to those policies…. this study finds that
the State of Israel exercises control in the OPT with
the purpose of maintaining a system of domination
by Jews over Palestinians and that this system
constitutes a breach of the prohibition of apartheid.”] 

International Convention on the Suppression
and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid
G.A. res. 3068 (XXVIII)), 28 U.N. GAOR Supp.
(No. 30) at 75, U.N. Doc. A/9030 (1974),
1015 U.N.T.S. 243, entered into force July
18, 1976. [Also here.]

International Criminal Court. Rome
Statute of the International Criminal
, done at Rome on 17 July 1998,
in force on 1 July 2002, United
Nations, Treaty Series,  vol.  2187,
No.  38544, 
Secretary-General of the
United Nations,
http://treaties.un.org. [Also here.]

International Court of Justice.
Advisory opinion of the International
Court of Justice on the Legal
Consequences of the Construction
of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian
, July 7, 2004.

Knesset News. "Full text of Basic
Law: Israel as the Nation State of
the Jewish People
,” July 19, 2018.

“Procedure for entry and residence for foreigners
in the Judea and Samaria area,” Coordination of
Government Activities in the Territories File of
Standing Orders, Operations Department,
September 4, 2022 [revised]. Downloadable
pdf here.

The UN Committee on the Elimination
of Racial Discrimination. "UN Committee
on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

publishes findings on Cambodia,
Colombia, Ireland, Israel and Uzbekistan
Press Release, December 13, 2019.
[Excerpt from
the report: "the Committee
remains concerned
(CERD/C/ISR/CO/14-16, para. 24) at the
consequences of policies and practices
that amount to segregation, such as the
existence in the Occupied Palestinian
Territory of two entirely separate legal
systems and sets of institutions for Jewish
communities in illegal settlements on the
one hand and Palestinian populations
living in Palestinian towns and villages
on the other hand. The Committee is
appalled at the hermetic character of
the separation of the two groups, who
live on the same territory butdo not
enjoy either equal use of roads and
infrastructure or equal access to basic
services, lands and water resources.
Such separation is materialized by
the implementation of a complex
combination of movement
restrictions consisting of the Wall,
the settlements, roadblocks,
military checkpoints, the obligation
to use separate roads and a permit
regime that impacts the Palestinian
population negatively (art. 3).”]

UNESCWA, “Israeli Practices
toward the Palestinian People
and the Question of Apartheid,”
March 2017. Removed
from UNESCWA’s website upon
instruction of the UN Secretary
General. Read the pdf here.

Abbes, Ahmed and Jonathan Rosehead. "2021, the
year of Israeli apartheid
. More than 1000
academics, artists and intellectuals have signed
a "Declaration on the Suppression and Punishment
of the Crime of Apartheid in Historic Palestine,” in
a sign of the growing acceptance of the term in
the west,” Mondoweiss, July 27, 2021. 

Abdelnour, Samer. "Understanding Israeli Apartheid,”
[presentation August 14, 2014, at The Palestine
Center, Washington, DC] / Also see Samer
Beyond South Africa: Understanding
Israeli Apartheid
, Al-Shabaka, April 4, 2013.
[Al-Shabaka: "Samer Abdelnour argues that
the specific characteristics of Israel’s brand of
apartheid need to be better understood in
order to dismantle it. He reveals Israeli
apartheid to be more sophisticated than
that of South Africa and suggests
directions to overcome it.”]

Abdo, Nahla. "Apartheid Israel and
South Africa in Comparative Perspective
[a review of Ilan Pappe‘ (ed.), Israel and
South Africa: The Many Faces of Apartheid
(London: Zed Books, 2015)], Journal of Holy
Land and Palestine Studies, 16.1 (2017):
125–138, Edinburgh University Press. 

Abu Artema, Ahmed. "The Naqab
is a key piece in Israel’s apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, February
23, 2022. ["But Palestinian Bedouins
know Israel has long used “afforestation”
as a way to seize lands in the Naqab
and elsewhere, and to hide the
landmarks and ruins of Palestinian
villages after Israel destroyed and
ethnically cleansed them. It is Israel’s
signature method of erasing all
traces of its crime. / Judaizing the
Naqab / Israel has adopted various
policies to “Judaize” the Naqab since
1948, most notably designating large
areas as nature reserves, and
industrial and military firing zones
around Bedouin villages, as noted
by Amnesty.”]

Abu El-Haj, Nadia. Racial
palestinianization and the
Janus-faced nature of the Israeli
,” Patterns of Prejudice,
44:1, 27-41, 2010. ["Abu El-Haj
focuses on David Theo Goldberg’s
analysis of ‘racial palestinianization’
in The Threat of Race. Most broadly,
she argues that the specific contours of
the Israeli state's racial rule over its
Palestinian subjects and citizens do not
fit easily into Goldberg's characterization
of neoliberal racism. She thinks with and
further elaborates Goldberg's many
insights, especially his use of Michel
Foucault's concept of ‘race wars’ and
‘counter-history’ to think about Zionism
and the Israeli state….Finally, she questions
Goldberg's naming of racial
palestinianization a ‘born again racism’,
and complicates his characterization of
Israel as a neoliberal state, insisting on
recognizing and highlighting its dual
nature: Israel is a neoliberal and a
colonial state, overlapping, and yet each
operating according to distinct tactics
and modalities of rule.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "Israel “far worse than
apartheid South Africa” says ANC chair
as Pretoria conference backs boycott
Electronic Intifada, October 29, 2012.
["Activists in South Africa have welcomed
a decision by the African National Congress
(ANC) International Solidarity Conference
to support the Palestinian-led campaign of
boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS)
against Israel. The ANC, South Africa’s
ruling party, led the decades-long struggle
against apartheid….The ANC Chairperson,
Baleka Mbete, strongly responded saying
that she has been to Palestine herself and
that the Israeli regime is not only
comparable but “far worse than Apartheid
South Africa.” Ms Mbete received a
resounding round of applause from
delegates for articulating this position.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "Israel renews racist marriage law,”
Electronic Intifada, June 3, 2020. ["Israel this week
renewed one of the most overtly racist of the dozens
of laws on its books that discriminate against
Palestinians and Palestinian citizens of Israel.
The “Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law”
prohibits Israeli citizens who marry Palestinians
from the occupied West Bank or Gaza Strip, or
nationals from several other regional states,
from living with their spouse in Israel….The
law is part of Israel’s efforts to prevent the
growth of the Palestinian population, a
fundamentally racist measure justified by
Israeli leaders as necessary to maintain a
Jewish majority….In intent and effect the
Israeli citizenship law is no different to the
laws that used to exist in apartheid South
Africa to prevent miscegenation, the
“interbreeding” of people of different races,
and to control where Black people could
live – laws such as the Group Areas Act and
the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "EU says it’s anti-Semitic
to call Israel an apartheid state
Intifada, January 23, 2023. ["
It is
anti-Semitic to say Israel perpetrates
the crime of apartheid against the
Palestinian people, according to the
European Union. That would mean
that major rights groups including
Human Rights Watch, Amnesty
International and Israel’s B’Tselem –
which is funded by the EU – are
guilty of anti-Jewish bigotry,
according to Brussels….Borrell
affirmed the EU’s reliance on the
so-called IHRA definition of anti-
Semitism and emphasized: “Claiming
that the existence of a State of Israel is
a racist endeavor is amongst the
illustrative examples included under
the IHRA definition.” The highly
politicized IHRA definition, heavily
promoted by Israel and its lobby,
has faced broad opposition due to
concerns that it will be used in
precisely the manner Borrell is now
deploying it: to falsely label legitimate
criticism of Israel and its crimes as
anti-Jewish bigotry. Borrell provided
no factual basis for dismissing the
meticulous research from multiple
human rights groups showing how
Israel perpetrates apartheid, a serious
crime against humanity covered by the
Rome Statute, the founding treaty of
the International Criminal Court.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "It’s apartheid “clear and simple,”
Pink Floyd’s Roger Waters tells his Israeli fans
Electronic Intifada, October 11, 2013. ["But the
fact is that there are different rules of law for
Arabs and Jews. Completely different. In the
occupied territories, Jews are governed under
a civil law and have completely different rules
in terms of their movement and so on and so
forth … and the occupied people, the
Palestinians and the Arabs, are under martial
law. And it’s a completely different set of laws.
They also have completely different sets of
documents. / It’s just like the old pass laws in
South Africa. It is apartheid. Clear and simple.
If you go and look at the definition of what the
crime of apartheid is, then it describes perfectly
what’s going on in the West Bank. And not quite
so perfectly, but also, Gaza, which is under siege,
it’s completely surrounded. They have no freedom.
When one race or ethnic group subjugates
another race or ethnic group, to its power and
control, that is the crime of apartheid.”]

Abunimah, Ali. Landmark UN report backs Israel
,” March 15, 2017. [
Published by the UN’s
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA), the report concludes that “Israel has
established an apartheid regime that dominates
the Palestinian people as a whole.” / 
It finds “beyond
a reasonable doubt that Israel is guilty of policies
and practices that constitute the crimes of apartheid”
as defined in international law. It urges national
governments to “support boycott, divestment and
sanctions activities and respond positively to calls
for such initiatives.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "New Netanyahu “peace” plan is
straight out of apartheid South Africa
,” Electronic
Intifada, July 28, 2017. ["Commonly referred to as
“transfer,” this proposal amounts to ethnic cleansing.
It is not a new idea, but Netanyahu’s broaching it
represents a further step in the Israeli government
formally adopting policies once considered taboo
even by many Israelis….The bantustans were a
mechanism to remove Black people physically –
by encouraging or forcing migration to them –
and politically from South Africa, while providing
no real rights. 
It is difficult to find any difference
with what Netanyahu – who has made clear his
aversion to seeing Palestinian citizens of Israel
vote – is proposing. There is one key difference:
unlike with apartheid South Africa whose
bantustans met universal rejection, many in
the so-called international community, including
Barack Obama when he was president, have
eagerly adopted Israel’s racist and
segregationist conception under the slogan
of “two states for two peoples.”

Abunimah, Ali. "South Africa ambassador
rejects gift from Israel, condemns “replication
of apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, June 19, 2013.
["South Africa’s former ambassador in Tel Aviv
has publicly rejected a gift from the Israeli
government, of 18 trees planted in his name
by the Jewish National Fund (JNF), on land
violently expropriated from its Palestinian

Abunimah, Ali. “Why can’t the EU say the word
” Electronic Intifada, April 29, 2021.
Despite its relentless propaganda about how
much it loves human rights, the EU stands – along
with the United States – as the greatest enabler of
Israeli apartheid, and thus an enemy of freedom,
justice and equality for Palestinians.”]

Abu‐Saad, Ismael. “Separate and
unequal: the role of the state
educational system in maintaining
the subordination of Israel’s
Palestinian Arab citizens
Social Identities, Vol. 10, No.1
(2004), pp. 101–27 ["
The state
educational system in Israel
functions effectively to maintain
the cultural, socioeconomic, and
political subordination of Israel’s
Palestinian Arab citizens through
the imposition of aims, goals and
curricula to which the students
cannot relate, and the substandard
and discriminatory provision of
educational resources, programmes
and services; all of which result
in markedly poorer levels of
educational achievement and
lower rates of students qualified
to enter higher education.”]

Academics for Palestine. “Academia
Against Apartheid. The Case for an
Academic Boycott of Israel
,” Academics
for Palestine [with additional funding from
Trade Union Friends of Palestine and
Teachers’ Union of Ireland - Dublin
Colleges Branch], 2014.

Adalah [The Legal Center for
Arab Minority Rights 
in Israel]. “Israeli
parliament votes to approve
Nation-State Law that enshrines
Jewish supremacy over Palestinian
,” July 19, 2018. ["New Basic
Law approved by a Knesset vote of
62-55 has distinct apartheid
characteristics and requires racist
acts as a constitutional value.”]

Adalah [The Legal Center for Arab Minority
in Israel]. “The Basic Law: Israel –The
Nation-State of the Jewish People,” November,
2018. [“The law lends discriminatory policies
against Palestinians greater legitimacy and
requires the executive, judiciary and other
authorities to implement them under the
rule of law. The law also reduces the very
grounds on which such discrimination can
be challenged under Israeli law. Despite the
foundational nature and far-reaching scope
of the Jewish Nation-State Law, however, it
contains no commitment to democratic norms,
or a guarantee of the right to equality, or a
prohibition of discrimination on the basis of
race, nationality, ethnicity or any other category
for all people living under Israeli sovereignty.
Indeed, it does not even define its citizenry,
referring instead to the Jewish people as its
subject, and defining sovereignty and democratic
self-rule as belonging solely to the Jewish people,
wherever they live around the world. Since the
law negates basic democratic principles to the
point of undermining the constitutional structure
of the state, in Adalah’s view, the Knesset
severely exceeded its powers as a constituent
authority in enacting it. Based on all of the
above, the law bears distinct characteristics
of apartheid.”]

Ahmed, Nasim. "'Israel is an apartheid
state - legally, politically and morally’,
landmark conference concludes
,” Middle
East Monitor, June 1, 2022. [“Khanfar
was one of six speakers at the event
organised by the International Centre
of Justice for Palestinians. The five other
guests were representatives of Amnesty
International, Human Rights Watch,
Al Haq, B'Tselem and Democracy in
the Arab World Now (DAWN). All recently
declared that Israel is committing the
crimes of apartheid and took part in the
event titled: Responding to Apartheid
in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian
Territories: the UK's obligation under
International Law.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
Al-Haq Launches Landmark Palestinian Coalition
Report: ‘Israeli Apartheid: Tool of Zionist Settler
’ November 29, 2022. [“Importantly,
the report is a major Palestinian publication to
expand the current international discourse on
apartheid, and importantly, examines apartheid
as a structural element of furthering Zionist settler
colonialism on both sides of the Green Line and
against the Palestinian people as a whole. Further,
the report illustrates the additional need to end
Israel’s settler colonialism and the fulfilment of
the Palestinian right to self-determination.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
Al-Haq Welcomes B’Tselem’s Recognition of Israeli
,” January 21, 2020. ["In particular, Al-Haq
welcomes B’Tselem’s recognition that apartheid
exists, as part of a singular regime of racial
domination and oppression, on both sides of the
Green Line, and the central role played by domestic
Israeli legislation, such as the 1950 Law of Return,
the 1950 Absentee Property Law, and the 2018
Jewish Nation-State Basic Law in entrenching Jewish
national supremacy over all Palestinians.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
"Civil Society Urges the Human Rights Council to
Recognise and Address Israeli Apartheid
” [Joint Oral
Intervention by 
Al Mezan Centre for Human Rights,
Al Haq, Law in the Service of Man, Cairo Institute for
Human Rights Studies, Women's Centre for Legal Aid
and Counselling], Al-Haq, October 20, 2020.

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
Israeli Apartheid Undermines Palestinian Right to
Health Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic
,” April 7, 2020.
["On World Health Day, as States continue to respond
to the COVID-19 pandemic, Israeli apartheid remains
a major impediment to the enjoyment by all
Palestinians of their right to the highest attainable
standard of health. As we take steps to prevent
and mitigate the effects of the pandemic, our
organisations underline the root causes of Israel’s
structural and institutionalised oppression over
the Palestinian people in their efforts to develop
an adequate response to COVID-19. If
Palestinians’ inalienable rights are to be realised,
these root causes must be addressed.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
Palestinian, regional, and international groups
submit report on Israeli apartheid to UN Committee
on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
November 12, 2019. ["The report outlines that
since 1948 the State of Israel has instituted a
series of discriminatory laws, policies, and
practices – constituting the legal foundation of
the State – which seek to maintain a racialized
regime of dispossession, domination, and
systematic fragmentation of the Palestinian
people. This conduct by the State serves to
persistently deny the right of reparation,
including consensual return to their homes,
lands, and property, to Palestinian refugees
and other persons displaced in the waves of
ethnic cleansing carried out since the State’s
establishment. Moreover, the report details
how Israel has continued to confer public
functions of the State to the World Zionist
Organization/Jewish Agency and the Jewish
National Fund, which are chartered to carry
out material discrimination against
non-Jewish persons.”]

Al Mezan. "The Gaza Bantustan — Israeli
Apartheid in the Gaza Strip
,” November 29,
2021. ["Al Mezan Center for Human Rights
issues a new report, ‘The Gaza Bantustan—Israeli
Apartheid in the Gaza Strip’, which considers
Israeli apartheid from the perspective of two
million Palestinians struggling to live in the
Gaza Strip….The Gaza Bantustan—Israeli
Apartheid in the Gaza Strip’ builds on Al
Mezan's decades-long work to promote
respect, protection, and fulfillment of
international law in the Gaza Strip, an
integral part of the OPT, and is the Center’s
first report focused on apartheid in
”/ “As a sealed-off enclave,
fragmented from the rest of the occupied
Palestinian territory (OPT) and controlled
by Israel within its apartheid system, Gaza
is a strip of land that can in many respects
be likened to a South African bantustan.
While the Israeli government purports to
justify the closure and related restrictions
under the guise of ‘security,’ this report
shows how Israel’s policies are in fact
motivated by its intent to separate and
divide Palestinians and thereby to assert
its domination over them, in furtherance
of its overarching settler-colonialist

Alterman, Eric. "Yes, Israel Is Obviously
an Apartheid State
. The Human Rights
Watch report is a valuable, sober, and
deliberately uninflammatory piece of
scholarship—which won’t make a damn
bit of difference.” The Nation, May 5,
2021. ["Still, thanks to HRW et al., the
question is no longer whether the word
“apartheid” applies to Israel but what
if anything remotely realizable can be
done about it.”]

Amayreh, Khalid. “Bantustans on
the West Bank,” al-Ahram Weekly,
May 23, 2002.

American Friends Service
Committee (AFSC). "Faith groups across
the country pledge to end support
of Israeli apartheid
,” Press Release,
June 1, 2023. ["Already, more than
65 congregations, faith groups, and
organizations have come out today
calling themselves "apartheid-free”
and pledging to take action against
Israeli apartheid. This includes three
nationwide signatories – the United
Church of Christ (UCC), South Central
Yearly Meeting (Quaker) and the
Alliance of Baptists – as well as
Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist
and Interfaith groups.”]

Amnesty International. “Defending
the rule of law, enforcing apartheid
– the double life of Israel’s judiciary
September 13, 2023. [“…Israel’s
judiciary has regularly upheld laws,
policies and practices which help to
maintain and enforce Israel’s system
of apartheid against Palestinians – the
Supreme Court has signed off on
many of the violations that underpin
the apartheid system.”]

Amnesty International. Israel’s
apartheid against Palestinians: a cruel
system of domination and a crime against
,” February 1, 2022. ["Our report
reveals the true extent of Israel’s apartheid
regime. Whether they live in Gaza, East
 Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank,
or Israel itself, Palestinians are treated as
an inferior racial group and systematically
deprived of their rights. We found that Israel’s
cruel policies of segregation, dispossession
and exclusion across all territories under its
control clearly amount to apartheid. The
international community has an obligation
to act.”] // AI has collected 
material dealing
with Israeli apartheid and the international
campaign against Israeli apartheid. View
those resources here.

Amnesty International. "200K people
demand an end to Israel’s apartheid
March 21, 2023. ["Amnesty International
offices around the world will today
deliver petitions signed by more than
200,000 people to Israeli authorities,
calling on them to put an end to the
demolition of Palestinian homes as a
first step towards dismantling apartheid.
Amnesty International’s petition, Demolish
Apartheid, Not Palestinian Homes, is
addressed to Israeli Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu and has been
signed by people in at least 174

Amnesty International. "Solidarity with
Palestinians means ending all support
for apartheid,
” November 29, 2022.
[“Today and every day, Amnesty
International stands with Palestinians
as they demand their rights in the face
of Israel’s relentless attacks. We call
on our supporters around the world
to demonstrate their solidarity by
speaking out, however they can, to
demand an end to Israel’s apartheid,”
said Heba Morayef, Amnesty
International’s Regional Director for
the Middle East and North Africa. 
violations by Israeli authorities
mounting and Palestinian civil society
under unprecedented assault,
Palestinians need international
support now more than ever. We
are urging the international
community to suspend any form of
support – whether direct or indirect,
whether through action or inaction
– to Israel’s apartheid system.”]

Amoruso, Francesco and Endika
Settler Colonialisms
of a Special Type: Apartheid in
Palestine/Israel and South Africa
. A
review of Israel and South Africa: The
Many Faces of Apartheid. Edited by Ilan
Pappé. Zed Books (2015),” Alternatives
International Journal, November,2016.
["A crucial theme explored in thisbook,
as previously mentioned, is the
correlation between apartheid-like political
formations and peculiar kinds of (settler)
colonialism. Settler colonialism is a ‘one-way

ticket’ form of colonialism. This means that
the colonialists do not occupy foreign lands
for economic and strategic benefits to
European empires, but for the purpose
of settling and founding new societies.
These processes are characterised by
the inevitable dispossession of indigenous
peoples. The erasure of indigenous
cultures and the physical elimination of
indigenous peoples is never a complete
act, but on the contrary is a structuring
element of settler colonial societies in
the past as well as in the present, until
decolonisation (2). Apartheid is one
typology of settler colonial domination,
and occurs where the settlers do not
achieve the goal of establishing an
overwhelming demographic majority.
Separation, as opposed to assimilation,
is the instrument that both the South
African and Israeli regimes employ(ed)
to exclude the natives from the state.”]

Arackal, Sheena Anne. “The ‘Deal
of the Century’ is Apartheid,”
Mondoweiss, January 28, 2020.

Arria, Michael. “New poll: 44%
of Democrats say Israel is a ‘state
with segregation similar to apartheid
A new poll by the University of
Maryland shows that 44% of
Democrats believe Israel is a
"state with segregation similar
to apartheid," and 41% of
Democrats support the BDS
movement, Mondoweiss,
April 25, 2023.

Arria, Michael. “Yale student council
condemns ‘ethnic cleansing’ and ‘apartheid’
in Palestine
,” Mondoweiss, June 30, 2021.
["As students at one of the most privileged
academic institutions in the world, we must
call out injustice wherever it may occur. We
stand against the discriminatory application
of the law that strips Palestinians of basic
rights. We stand against the violent expulsions
of those living under occupation in Sheikh
Jarrah. We stand against the apartheid and
the persecution of Palestinians, and stand
for peace and the freedom of the Palestinian
people from violent military occupation.”]

Assad, Soheir and Rania Muhareb.
Dismantle What? Amnesty’s conflicted
messaging on Israeli Apartheid
International's failure to recognize apartheid
within the context of settler colonialism
disregards the root cause of the denial of
Palestinian rights for over a century,”
Mondoweiss, February 18, 2022. [
recognize the importance of such reports
for global campaigning and advocacy
efforts. However, there are issues with
this report, just like the ones previously
published by international and Israeli
organizations. Amnesty’s report fails to
recognize apartheid as a tool of Zionist
settler colonialism and fails to consider
the role of Zionist ideology and
institutions in establishing and maintaining
this system. It also refrains from
recognizing the right of the Palestinian
people to self-determination. Thus, the
report does not break away from the
limitations imposed on Palestinians’
discourse, nor does it confront the nature
of the Zionist project as both racist and
settler colonial.”]

Assaf, Roxane Ellis Rodriguez. Sabeel’s Rev.
Naim Ateek Calls Israeli Apartheid by Its Hebrew
Name: Hafrada
,” Washington Report on Middle
East Affairs, May 2003, pages 52-53. ["Rev. Canon
Dr. Naim Ateek, the visionary Palestinian leader of
Jerusalem’s Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology
Center, brought hope in a time of despair with a
concrete plan for peace. Borrowing from the term
for South Africa’s policy of white supremacy,
“apartheid,” Ateek referred to Israel’s actions as a
policy of “hafrada””“ Hebrew for “separation.”]

Assi, Seraj. Just Ask Israel”  Donald Trump is selling
his border wall by touting Israel’s separation wall — a
barrier that even many supporters admit amounts to
apartheid,” Jacobin, January 10, 2019. ["For decades,
Israeli officials have employed the Hebrew term Hafrada
(“separation” or “segregation”) to describe Israel’s
governing policy in the West Bank and Gaza, which
involves keeping Palestinians apart from both the
Israeli population and the Jewish settler community
in the occupied Palestinian territories. The so-called
West Bank Barrier, known in Hebrew as “Gader Ha-Hafrada”
(“Separation Fence”), was built in accordance with this
Hafrada vision….  (Rabin) ordered the construction of a
thirty-mile wall along the Gaza Strip. Rabin’s Hafrada
vision was summed up in his famous pledge to “take
Gaza out of Tel Aviv.” As he declared in 1994: “We
have to decide on Hafrada as a philosophy.” A year
later, Rabin told Israelis: “We have to reach a
separation between us and them.” 
Putting philosophy
into action, he established a special commission to
discuss the implementation of Hafrada and
formulate a “separation plan.” // 
While some
Israelis like to distinguish between “hard separation”
(Rabin and Barak) and “soft separation” (Peres and
Olmert), the result has been the same: an apartheid
form of physical division where one ethnic group is
free and the other is not. This is not to suggest that
Israel’s Hafrada is identical to South Africa’s apartheid,
but that apartheid, or separateness, as a system of
enforced segregation based on race and ethnicity and
imposed by a sovereign and dominant group over an
impoverished one, can take myriad forms.”]

Assi, Seraj. This Is Exactly What Israeli
Apartheid Looks Like
,” Jacobin, March 7, 2023.

Ateek, Naim. “Hafrada” or a Genuine Peace?
Corner Stone, Issue 29 - Summer 2003. [“Theologically
speaking the building of the wall of “hafrada” (Hebrew
for separation) by Israel is inevitably its way of building
and maintaining “empire.”...The tragedy  of
Israel is that it has built its empire on the foundation
of injustice and oppression; consequently it will always
feel the need to build walls of “hafrada”.]

Awad, Nada and Rania Muhareb.
Annexation as a Symptom of Israeli
,” al-Shabaka. July 1, 2020.

Baconi, Tareq. “Critique as movement
building: The apartheid reports on
,” Mada Masr, March 29, 2022.
[“(T)hese organizations put forward
reports that are imperfect, and that fall
short, to varying degrees, of what
Palestinians have long been advocating.
The B’Tselem report, for instance, makes
no mention of Palestinian refugees, while
the Human Rights Watch report suggests
that Israeli apartheid manifested after a
“threshold” was crossed during the years
of the Trump administration, rather than
in 1948, at the very instant of Israel’s
creation. The Amnesty report, in comparison,
roots its analysis in 1948 and calls for the
return of the Palestinian refugees as a
critical element of decomposing Israel’s
regime. It limits itself, however, as a human
rights organization, from taking a position
on Palestinian self-determination and
sovereignty, which it views as political

Baconi, Tareq. Israel’s Apartheid: A
Structure of Colonial Domination Since
,”  Journal of Palestine Studies,
51:3, 44-49 [July, 2022]. [
This essay
offers a critical reading of the
mainstreaming of the narrative, long
advocated by Palestinians, that Israel
is perpetrating the crime of apartheid
against the Palestinian people. It
argues that partitioning the land of
Palestine, which the Palestinian
leadership acquiesced to, is a
cornerstone of apartheid, and a
legitimation of the Zionist movement.
Rather than partition, the piece calls
for a political strategy of
decolonization that aims at
dismantling the regime of apartheid
that the Zionist movement instituted
in Palestine in 1948.”]

Baconi, Tareq. "What Apartheid Means for Israel.
A growing consensus has formed around the
term—not as a rhetorical comparison to South
Africa, but describing a system of domination
built on the partition of Palestine,” The New York
Review, November 5, 2021.

Badil Resource Center for Palestinian Residency
and Refugee Rights, 
Israel and the Crime of Apartheid:
Towards a Comprehensive Analysis
,” Al Majdal, Issue
No.47, Autumn 2011. [PDF downloadable
["In this issue, BADIL’s staff set out the legal
context of the denial of the Palestinian
and Max du Plessis provides
background to the prohibition of Apartheid in
international law
. Professor John Dugard outlines
his experiences under South African Apartheid and
in Israel and the OPT
. David Keane provides a
background to the definition of racial groups in
international law
and Ingrid Jaradat analyzes this
in relation to Palestinians as a racial group
.” // Also
includes "Applying the crime of Apartheid to Israel’s
regime over the Palestinian people: Are Palestinians a
distinct ‘racial group’?
” by Ingrid Jaradat Gassner;
"Separate Legal Systems for Jewish-Israeli Settlers
and Palestinians in the Occupied Territories
,” by
Emily Schaeffer; 
"Denial of the right to life and liberty
of person as an act of apartheid
,” by Sahar Francis;
"House Demolitions and Israel's Policy of Hafrada,”
by Jeff Halper; "Persecution in International Law,” by
Raji Sourani; "The world is silent while the State of
Israel continues its racist policy and criminal activity
against the Arab minority in the Naqab
,” by Jazzi Abu
Kaf; "BDS Campaign Updates (June - September 2011),
by BADIL Staff; "Legal and Administrative Measures
Impacting Residency Rights and Freedom of Movement
Fragmentation of the Palestinian Population to Prevent
Their Development
,” by al-Haq. (Abstract of Al-Haq’s
submission to the Russell Tribunal on Palestine

Barat, Frank. "Anti-apartheid: An
interview with Ronnie Kasrils
ConfiniOnline, September 27,
2012. [RK: "Because what is taking
place in Palestine reminds us,
South African freedom fighters,
of what we suffered from. We are
the beneficiaries of international
solidarity and need to make a
similar payback to others still
struggling for liberation. Palestine
is an example of a people who
were dispossessed of land and
birthright just like the indigenous
people of South Africa. As a Jew,
I abhor the fact that the Zionist
rulers of Israel/Palestine claim they
are acting in the name of Jews
everywhere. I am one of many
Jews internationally, and in Israel
itself, who declare "Not in my name”.]

Barghouthi, Dr. Mustafa. “Thirty
years after the Oslo Accords:
facing a reality of apartheid
. After
30 years of Oslo, the only
remaining alternative to
apartheid is one democratic
state with equal national and
civil rights, including the right
of self-determination for the
Palestinian people,” Mondoweiss,
September 13, 2023. [“According
to the former Mossad chief Tamir
Pardo, “Israel is enforcing an
apartheid system against
Palestinians in the occupied
West Bank.” He added in a recent
interview with the Associated
Press: “In a territory where
two people are judged under
two legal systems that is an
Apartheid State.” I (Barghouthi)
have been warning about
Israel’s creation of Apartheid
in Palestine since 1998.”]

Barnett, Michael and Nathan
Brown, Marc Lynch, and Shibley
Telhami. "Israel’s One-State Reality.
It’s Time to Give Up on the
Two-State Solution,” Foreign Affairs,
April 14, 2023. [“Analytically, what
matters is that the apartheid label
accurately describes the facts on
the ground and offers the beginnings
of a road map to change them.”]

Barrows-Friedman, Nora. "Podcast Ep 29:
Israel convicts Issa Amro for protesting
,” Electronic Intifada, February 1,
2021. [“(W)e speak with Issa Amro,
co-founder of the activist group Youth
Against Settlements in the occupied
West Bank city of Hebron. 
Amro has
faced indictments for years over his
campaigns of nonviolent civil
disobedience against encroaching
Israeli settlements inside the city
and the apartheid system maintained
and protected by Israeli soldiers. On
6 January, Amro was convicted in an
Israeli military court on six charges,
including three counts of protesting
without a permit, two counts of
disrupting the activities of Israeli
soldiers and one count of assault on
a soldier. “My ask is not to stop going
after me,” Amro tells us. “My ask is to
close the Israeli military courts. My ask
is to end the Israeli military system…
if they don’t put me in jail this time,
they will put me in jail the next time
I protest.”]

Barrows-Friedman, Nora. "US faith
groups pledge to take action against
Israeli apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada,
June 8, 2023. ["Inspired by the
movement that helped dismantle the
apartheid regime in South Africa,
dozens of faith-based groups in the
US this week launched an initiative to
take action against Israeli apartheid.
The Apartheid-Free Communities
initiative, convened by the American
Friends Service Committee, a Quaker
organization, encourages faith groups
to pledge “to step away from any and
all support to Israeli apartheid,
occupation, and settler colonialism.”]

Baruch, Ilan and Alon Leil. "It’s apartheid, say
Israeli ambassadors to South Africa
“It is clearer
than ever that the occupation is not temporary,
and there is not the political will in the Israeli
government to bring about its end,” GroundUp,
 June 8, 2021. ["
It is time for the world to
recognize that what we saw in South Africa
decades ago is happening in the occupied
Palestinian territories too. And just as the
world joined the struggle against apartheid
in South Africa, it is time for the world to take
decisive diplomatic action in our case as well
and work towards building a future of equality,
dignity, and security for Palestinians and
Israelis alike.”]

Bashir, Ayah (interviewer) Haidar
Eid (interviewee). “Resisting 66 years
of Israeli Apartheid,” Mondoweiss,
May 22, 2014.

Beinart, Peter. "Why American Liberals
Now Call Israel An Apartheid State
,” The
Beinart Notebook, February 14, 2022.
[" To understand what’s changed in
American discourse, it’s worth starting
with what hasn’t changed. The answer:
A lot. Establishment Jewish organizations,
American politicians, and American
conservatives have responded to the
new wave of apartheid allegations in
pretty much the same way they responded
to Carter fifteen years ago….[A]fter more
than a decade of Netanyahu, who advertised
his disdain for Palestinian statehood, and
close to a year of Naftali Bennett, who once
led Israel’s main settler organization and
promoted annexation of the West Bank,
mainstream American liberals no longer
claim that Israel yearns to end the
occupation….[Y]ou can’t explain the shift
over the last fifteen years merely by
examining changes in Israel. There’s
also been a change here. Americans find
Israel’s illiberalism more glaring because
of the changing nature of liberalism in the
United States….[T]his change stems in large
measure from the Black Lives Matter and
#MeToo movements, which have forced
a reckoning in mainstream liberal media
about questions of representation. It’s
now harder to exclude Palestinians from
conversations about whether Israel practices
apartheid for the same reason it’s harder
to exclude Black Americans from conversations
about whether American policing is racist or
women from conversations about
restrictions on abortion.”]

Bennis, Phyllis. "Why Human Rights Watch
Designating Israel's Crimes as Apartheid Is
a Very Big Deal
. The report reflects the power
of decades of work in defense of Palestinian
rights,” Common Dreams, May 5, 2021. ["And it
is precisely because the Palestinian-led and
broader movements for Palestinian rights have
accomplished so much in changing that discourse,
that an organization like HRW is now willing to
join the expanding chorus. Whether they admit it
or not, there can be little doubt that much of
HRW’s decision to issue this report now was
based on the recognition that not only is it no
longer political suicide to call Israeli apartheid
what it is, but that we are now at a tipping point
whereby failing to call out apartheid risks losing
credibility for a human rights organization.
That’s huge. The report reflects the power of
decades of work in defense of Palestinian rights.”]

Benvenisti, Meron. "Bantustan plan for an apartheid
,” The Guardian [UK], April 25, 2004. [“And
thus, with breathtaking daring, Sharon submits a
plan that appears to promise the existence of a
"Jewish democratic state" via "separation", “the
end of the conquest", the "dismantling of
settlements" - and also the imprisonment of
some 3 million Palestinians in bantustans. This
is an "interim plan" that is meant to last forever.
The plan will last, however, only as long as the
illusion is sustained that "separation" is a means
to end the conflict. The day will come when
believers in this illusion will realise that
"separation" is a means to oppress and dominate,
and then they will mobilise to dismantle the
apartheid apparatus.”]

Benyair, Michael. "Former AG of Israel: With
great sadness I conclude that my country is
now an apartheid regime
. Michael Benyair,
former Attorney General of Israel, agrees with
Amnesty International,” The Journal.ie, February
10, 2022. ["It is with great sadness that I must
also conclude that my country has sunk to such
political and moral depths that it is now an
apartheid regime. It is time for the international
community to recognise this reality as well.”]

Berger, Miriam. "Amnesty International,
joining other human rights groups, says Israel
is ‘committing the crime of apartheid
Washington Post, February 1, 2022.

Berman, Lazar. "Israel drops demand
for West Bank visitors to report
relationships with Palestinians
. US official
hails revisions to Defense Ministry guidelines
for foreign nationals, which also remove
academic quotas, but says more changes
needed to meet visa waiver standards,” Times
of Israel, September 4, 2022. [Regarding
the apartheid guidelines as originally
written see Shira Rubin and Claire Parker,
New rules make foreign visitors to West
Bank declare romantic ties to Palestinians
Washington Post, September 3, 2022. (“Foreign
passport holders in the West Bank will be
required to report their romantic relationships
with Palestinians to Israeli authorities, according
to new, hotly contested rules set to take
effect on Monday."

Besser, James. Israel Chooses the Path to
. It was once possible to argue that
Israel's policies were not the same as apartheid
because their stated goal, however imperfectly
pursued, was to end the occupation. After
Netanyahu's reelection, this is no longer the
case,” Haaretz, March 20, 2015. [“(T)his week’s
election, with Benjamin Netanyahu poised to
serve another term with an even more hardline
coalition, means that apartheid is the path Israeli
voters have chosen. The inevitable results will
include even greater international isolation for
the Jewish state, a boost to efforts to apply
boycotts and sanctions, diminished support
from American Jews and endlessly intensifying
cycles of violence.] [
James Besser was Washington
correspondent for the New York Jewish Week and
other Anglo-Jewish newspapers for 24 years before
his retirement in 2011.”]

Boigon, Molly. "Who said it when? A timeline
of the term ‘apartheid’ in relation to Israel
Forward, April 27, 2021.

Brown, Michael. “Excusing Israeli
apartheid in the NYT
,” Electronic
Intifada, July 8, 2022. ["This is
not equal rights for Palestinians
in the West Bank as The New York
Times claims, but a repackaging
of apartheid to head off Palestinian
“demographic invasion” and political
A change of (A.B. Yehoshua’s)
mind would have had to occur in
literally the final days of his life and
would have been a scoop by the
newspaper. Such evidence would
mean that Yehoshua moved off
of his rejection of equal rights in
one state for Palestinians from
Gaza and grappled more fully
with the apartheid reality he had
begun to recognize in the West
The evidence, however,
remains missing.”]

B’Tselem. A regime of Jewish supremacy
from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean
Sea: This is apartheid
,” January 12, 2021.

B’Tselem. [Definition of Apartheid], January
12, 2021. [“
The Israeli regime enacts in all the
territory it contols (Israeli sovereign territory,
East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza
Strip) an apartheid regime. One organizing
principle lies at the base of a wide array of
Israeli policies: advancing and perpetuating
the supremacy of one group – Jews – over
another – Palestinians. / B’Tselem rejects
the perception of Israel as a democracy
(inside the Green Line) that simultaneously
upholds a temporary military occupation
(beyond it). B’Tselem reached the conclusion
that the bar for defining the Israeli regime
as an apartheid regime has been met after
considering the accumulation of policies and
laws that Israel devised to entrench its control
over Palestinians. / The key tool Israel uses to
implement the principle of Jewish supremacy
is engineering space geographically,
demographically and politically. Jews go about
their lives in a single, contiguous space where
they enjoy full rights and self-determination.
In contrast, Palestinians live in a space that is
fragmented into several units, each with a
different set of rights – given or denied by
Israel, but always inferior to the rights accorded
to Jews. / The Israeli regime pursues this
organizing principle in four major areas …”]

B’Tselem. "New all population
Israeli-Palestinian survey: 45% of those
living between the Jordan River and the
Mediterranean Sea believe “apartheid” is
an appropriate description of the regime
B’Tselem website, April 12, 2021. [“April
2021 survey of all Israelis and Palestinians
living between the Jordan river and the
Mediterranean sea (analyzed together as
a single population unit), found that about
25 per cent of Jewish Israelis believe the
term “apartheid” is a fitting or very fitting
description of the Israeli regime, as did a
strong majority (75 per cent) of
Palestinians.” — CJPME]

Burston, Bradley. "It’s Time to Admit It.
Israeli Policy Is What It Is: Apartheid
,” Haaretz,
August 17, 2015. ["What I’m about to write
will not come easily for me. I used to be one
of those people who took issue with the label
of apartheid as applied to Israel. I was one of
those people who could be counted on to argue
that, while the country’s settlement and occupation
policies were anti-democratic and brutal and
slow-dose suicidal, the word apartheid did not
apply. I’m not one of those people any more.”]
Also see: Ben Norton, 
Leading Israeli journalist
says Israel is an Apartheid state
,” Mondoweiss,
August 18, 2015.

Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, “United
Nations: In response to Unprecedented Recognition
of Israel’s Apartheid Regime, States Must Take Concrete
Steps to End this unjust reality
,” June 17, 2020.

Calis, Irene. Beyond the Apartheid Analogy:
Time to Reframe Our Palestinian Struggle
Al-Shabaka, January 13, 2015. [
Rather than
getting sidelined in a debate about what does
and does not qualify as apartheid, from my
vantage point here in South Africa it seems
necessary to reframe our focus to one that
is more substantively beneficial for
Palestinians. This concerns not the nature
of the apartheid state, but instead, the
nature of our preferred future. That is,
what we need is not to prove whether Israel
is the new apartheid, but instead to draw
lessons from the post-Apartheid human
condition in South Africa.”]

Canadians for Justice and Peace in the
Middle East (CJPME). “Who is Talking About
Israeli Apartheid
?” section of CJPME’s website
[accessed January, 2023]. ["Many Palestinians,
solidarity activists, and academics have
recognized the "apartheid" character of Israel
for many years. Recently, however, there has
been a notable shift in mainstream
organizations and figures willing to use this
language. Below is an updated (but not
exhaustive) list of notable organizations
and figures who have recently adopted, or
expressed openness towards, the terminology
of Israeli apartheid.”]

CBS News. "Israel bans groups that call it
an "apartheid state" from lecturing in schools
January 18, 2021. ["B'Tselem said it would not
be deterred by the minister's announcement.
"B'Tselem is determined to keep with its mission
of documenting reality, analyzing it, and making
our findings publicly known to the Israeli public,
and worldwide," it said in a statement.”]

Coconi, Luciana, and David Bondia. “Apartheid
Against the Palestinian People,”  September, 2012.
[Downloadable pdf here.]

Cohen, Mari. "Apartheid Is Israel’s “Desired
” [converstion with Amira Hass], Jewish
Currents, June 12, 2019. [“(T)he current reality
is actually one state, which is an apartheid state.
This means there are two separate laws: one for
Palestinians and one for Israeli Jews. The
Palestinian population is subdivided into groups
and subgroups like the nonwhite population of
South Africa. They’re disconnected from each other.
They are treated differently by Israel, while Israeli
Jews live in the entire country, like one people, with
full rights….For Israel, this is the desired reality:
that Palestinians live in their enclaves, deprived of
any ability to develop the economy, and that the
world gives them donations so that they can sustain
themselves. And that’s it. There is no desire on the
part of Israel to reach a different reality. There has
been a kind of an illusion among Jews [in the
diaspora] that Israel wants a solution. But [Israeli
Jews] don’t see that this is a problem.”]

Cohen, Robert. "B’Tselem, apartheid, and
correcting the ethical grammar on
,” Writing from the Edge
[blog], January 25, 2021. 

Cole, Juan. "Affirming Jim Crow, Israeli
Parliament Votes Down Bill Guaranteeing
Equality for Palestinian-Israelis
. During the
past year, the Knesset has shot down
numerous proposals to amend the National
Law to forbid discrimination against non-Jews,”
Common Dreams, September 20, 2020.
[“(T)he Israeli parliament, the Knesset, voted
down a proposed basic law introduced by
Yousef Jabareen on behalf of the Joint List.
It aimed at altering the constitutional basis
of the Israeli state, requiring democratic
principles, cultural pluralism, and complete
equality for all citizen on both civil and
national levels….
Israel has all along had a
choice between being a democratic state
for all its citizens or being an ethno-
nationalist oligarchy with second-class
citizens at home and Apartheid subjects
in the West Bank. This is not the first
Knesset vote to demonstrate forcefully
that the Israeli majority wants the latter.”]

Cole, Juan. "Brandeis U. Owes Jimmy Carter an
Apology: Israelis agree they run Apartheid State,
as Far Right Wing Coalition Emerges
,” Informed
Consent, October 26, 2012. ["About a third of
Jewish Israelis want to denaturalize Israeli Arabs,
depriving them of the right to vote. Nearly half
(47%) want some of these Israeli citizens to be
ethnically cleansed from Israel and ‘transferred’
to the West Bank, though, confusingly, 38% want
to annex the West Bank to Israel altogether. If that
happened, though, 69% say that they would oppose
giving citizenship to the 2.5 million Palestinians
who live there. / Residential segregation is a big
part of Apartheid. Some 42 percent of Jewish
Israelis would not want to live in the same building
with Israelis of Arab heritage. The same percentage
doesn’t want to see their children in the same class
with Israeli children who are ethnically Arab. / About
half want the Israeli state to treat Jewish citizens
better than it does Arabs, and 59% want majority-
affirmative-action, i.e. preferences for Jews over
Arabs in hiring.”]

Compane, Alie. "Why it’s right to call Israel an
’apartheid state,’
” IOL [SA], February 7, 2021.
["We argue that there is a moral case that qualifies
Israel as an apartheid state, especially as black South
Africans who hold to some extent, moral authority
on the question….South Africa’s former president
Kgalema Motlanthe argues that the Israeli version of
apartheid is far worse than what was experienced in
South Africa. While Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the
face of the non-violent anti-apartheid movement and
Nobel Peace laureate, agrees that the treatment of
Palestinians by the Israeli regime is familiar to that
of South Africans during apartheid. There are several
leaders of the anti-apartheid struggle who identify
with this moral contention: Letlapa Mphahlele of the
PAC, Motsoko Pheko of AZAPO, Joe Slovo of the SACP,
Winnie Mandela of the ANC and many others have
shared the same sentiment on Israeli apartheid. /
What many Israeli supporters get wrong is the constant
and relentless bit by bit comparison of apartheid
South Africa, deliberately degenerating a complex
institutionalised system of racial discrimination to
simple logic. For instance, the South African
apartheid regime had many black people in their
militarised police force as well as in their oppressive
legal systems. We had magistrates and prosecutors
who worked effectively for the apartheid regime. /
This does not mean apartheid was not alive and well,
simply because black people could not go to the same
beach as white people is not the crux of apartheid but
the moral of it. Same as there are different roads for
Jews and Palestinians, the Israeli regime has
Palestinians in their employ. It does not at any
point, invalidate the system of apartheid the
regime practices.”]

Cook, Jonathan. Amnesty apartheid report:
The walls protecting Israel are finally crumbling
With the publication of Amnesty International’s
new apartheid report, Israel's supporters have
just one tactic left: to accuse critics of
antisemitism,” February 2, 2022. [Excerpt: “As
with apartheid South Africa, there has to be a
fundamental realignment of power within the
region. Change has to be deep and
all-encompassing. And as was the case with
South Africa, it will not happen without
strong international pressure.”]

Cook, Jonathan. Apartheid looks like this,”
Electronic Intifada,  February 23,  2007.

Cook, Jonathan. "Israel is losing the fight to obscure
its apartheid character
. New report by rights group
B'Tselem will make it harder to smear Israel's critics
as antisemites for arguing that Israel is a racist state,

Middle East Eye, January 14, 2021.

Cook, Jonathan. "Israel: Racist, violent policing
is at the heart of apartheid
. Amnesty International
report highlights how Israeli police protect Jewish
supremacism from any challenge by Palestinian
citizens,” Middle East Eye, July 1, 2021. ["This was
the damning verdict of an Amnesty International
report published last week. The findings indicate
that Israeli police view the country’s Palestinian
minority, a fifth of the population, as an enemy
rather than as citizens with a right to protest.
The report echoes what Palestinian leaders in
Israel and local human rights groups have long
said: that the default policing of the Palestinian
community in Israel is racist and violent. It
reflects the same values of Jewish supremacism
seen in the Israeli army’s brutal treatment of
Palestinians under occupation.”]

Cook, Jonathan. Israel's Big and Small
,” CounterPunch, April 26, 2010.
["Israel is neither a liberal democracy nor
even a “Jewish and democratic state”, as its
supporters claim. It is an apartheid state,
not only in the occupied territories of the
West Bank and Gaza, but also inside Israel
proper. Today, in the occupied territories,
the apartheid nature of Israeli rule is
irrefutable — if little mentioned by Western
politicians or the media. But inside Israel
itself, it is largely veiled and hidden. My
purpose today is to try to remove the veil
a little.”]

Cook, Jonathan. "Picnic video exposes both faces
of Israeli apartheid
. Israel upholds a system of
Jewish supremacy over the land, and it doesn’t
matter whether those challenging its apartheid
rule are Palestinian subjects without rights or
‘Arab’ citizens supposedly with full rights,”
Jonathan-cook.net, February 17, 2021. ["A short
video taken by a family as they picnicked in the
West Bank this month may be the best field
guide yet to Israel’s complex apartheid system
of state-sponsored Jewish supremacy. In the clip
posted to Facebook, armed Jewish settlers arrive
unexpectedly to break up the picnic of a Palestinian
family – including grandparents and two babies
– at a scenic public space on a hillside north
of Ramallah.”]

Cook, Jonathan. "Why Israel is an apartheid
,” Americans for Middle East Understanding,
March-April, 2018. ["More than a decade ago,
US President Jimmy Carter warned that Israel
was practising apartheid in the occupied
Palestinian territories. But in truth, it would
be more accurate to say Israel itself is an
apartheid state.”]

Council on American-Islamic Relations
[CAIR] / Huzaifa Shahbaz. “Criticizing
Israel’s Apartheid Policies Isn’t
Antisemitic — And Hasn’t Led to a
Surge in Antisemitic Incidents
,” June 4,
2021. ["Criticism of the Israeli government
isn’t antisemitic, and criticism of the
Israeli government did not spark a surge
in antisemitic incidents…. When you look
at the fine print, it becomes clear that some
of the ADL’s data was, at best,
mischaracterized, and at worst, simply
incorrect….Jewish writers and activists
have led the charge in pointing out the
ADL’s attempt to silence and smear
Palestinian human rights activists as
antisemitic is baseless. I concur with
them. Here are a few reasons why.”]

Cronin, David. "Israeli apartheid
“more sophisticated” than South
Africa’s, says new book
,” Electronic
Intifada, July 1, 2013. ["Strip away that
glamorous veneer, however, and you
will find a vicious form of apartheid.
Dadoo and Osman are well-placed to
identify what constitutes an apartheid
state: they are from South Africa. In
their book, which spans more than 630
pages, they draw plenty of parallels
between how Israel treats the Palestinians
and how blacks were treated in South
Africa under white rule. Many things
they underscore are critically important,
yet not widely-known.”]

Davidson, Lawrence. “Defending Apartheid,”
To the Point Analysis [blog], January 9, 2021.
["In 2017 the United Nations Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
issued a report on the conditions of Palestinians
under Israeli rule. The report covered the
situations of both Palestinian citizens of Israel
and the subject population in the Occupied
Territories. The report concluded “Israel has
established an apartheid regime that dominates
the Palestinian people as a whole.” Though U.S
 and Israeli pressure managed to suppress the
report, evidence for this charge of apartheid
is clear-cut.”]

Davis, Rebecca. "Selling apartheid: new book
lays bare South Africa’s propaganda war
. At its
height, the government was running one of the
most expensive information campaigns in the world.
Rebecca Davis delves into this little-known history,”
Guardian [UK], September 1, 2015. ["To understand
the scope of the propaganda war, picture this scene:
the setting is a boardroom in 1970s South Africa under
the presidency of John Vorster. A group of bureaucrats
gather to hear the results of a survey undertaken by an
expensive New York PR firm, tasked with finding out
what people think of apartheid South Africa
What the bureaucrats hear isn’t
pretty. They’re told South Africa is the second
most most unpopular country in the world, just
after Idi Amin’s Uganda. The country is “less
favourably regarded” than both the Soviet Union
and China. 
This, Nixon writes in his new book
Selling Apartheid: South Africa’s Global Propaganda
War, was one of the moments that saw the country’s
information war step up a gear.”]

Dawber, Alistair. "Israel’s Palestinian-only buses
prompt apartheid comparisons
,” Independent [UK],
March 3, 2013.

Debnam, Caroline. "Beyond apartheid. As the
word "apartheid" grows in popularity to describe
Israeli oppression of Palestinians it is helpful to
revisit another concept defined in the mid 20th
century: genocide
,” Mondoweiss, November 8,
2021. ["In 1944 he [Polish Jewish lawyer Raphael
Lemkin] wrote: 
“more often [genocide] refers to
a coordinated plan aimed at destruction of the
essential foundations of the life of national groups
so that these groups wither and die like plants
that have suffered a blight. The end may be
accomplished by the forced disintegration of
political and social institutions, of the culture
of the people, of their language, their national
feelings and their religion. It may be
accomplished by wiping out all basis of
personal security, liberty, health and dignity.
When these means fail the machine gun can
always be utilized as a last resort. Genocide
is directed against a national group as an
entity and the attack on individuals is only
secondary to the annihilation of the national
group to which they belong.”] Also see: Center
for Constitutional Rights, 
The Genocide of
the Palestinian People: An International Law
and Human Rights Perspective
,” August 25, 2016.

Democracy Now. "Ex-U.N. Official John Dugard:
Israel’s Crimes are “Infinitely Worse” Than in
Apartheid South Africa
,” May 6, 2015. [Video]

Divestment Taskforce, New England
Conference, United Methodist Church. “New
England Conference, United Methodist Church
passes Israeli apartheid resolution
,” RNS
Press Release Distribution Service, June
13, 2022.

Dixon, Bruce. "Envisioning the End of Israeli
Apartheid: An Interview With Ali Abunimah
Black Agenda Report, May 7, 2008. ["The other
thing I think is important to know is the history,
that throughout the 1970s and 80s, when black
Americans were leading the struggle against
apartheid in this country, when they were the
conscience of this country in terms of putting
apartheid South Africa on the American political
agenda, Israel was one of the key supporters of
apartheid South Africa. Israel is the country that
systematically violated the international arms
embargo on South Africa. The weapons used to
beat and kill black demonstrators and freedom
fighters in South African townships were made
in Israel, right down to the water cannon used
in the townships... the fighter jets, the gunboats,
all the heavy armament of the South African
military used were in large part supplied by
Israel. It's less well known, there is less hard
evidence about it, although some information
is in the public domain regarding Israeili-South
African cooperation in their nuclear
weapons programs.”]

Dugard, John. "Apartheid and the occupation of
. As the Russell Tribunal convenes to discuss
apartheid, Israel has already surpassed South Africa’s
racist era,” Al Jazeera, November 4, 2011.

Dugard, John. "Israel’s apartheid perfected and
. Israel’s decades-long occupation of
Palestinian territories is nothing but a textbook
example of apartheid – an offshoot of the South
African version, and has taken root,” New Frame,
October 8, 2020.

Dugard, John. "John Dugard: Israelis Adopt
what South Africa Dropped
,” The Palestine
Chronicle, November 30, 2006. ["Many aspects
of Israel’s occupation surpass those of the
apartheid regime. Israel’s large- scale
destruction of Palestinian homes, leveling
of agricultural lands, military incursions
and targeted assassinations of Palestinians
far exceed any similar practices in apartheid
South Africa. No wall was ever built to
separate blacks and whites. Following the
worldwide anti-apartheid movement, one
might expect a similarly concerted
international effort united in opposition
to Israel’s abhorrent treatment of the
Palestinians. Instead one finds an
international community divided
between the West and the rest of
the world.”]

Dugard, John and John Reynolds. “Apartheid,
International Law, and the Occupied Palestinian
,” The European Journal of International
Law, Vol. 24 no. 3, 2013, pp. 867-913.

Eglash, Ruth. "Is Israel an ‘apartheid’ state? This U.N.
report says yes
,” The Washington Post, March 16,
2017. ["JERUSALEM — If being an apartheid state
means committing inhumane acts, systematic
oppression and domination by one racial group over
another, then Israel is guilty, a United Nations panel
has determined in a new report.”]

Eid, Haidar. "B’Tselem’s ‘bombshell’ apartheid
report: Stating the obvious
. The Israeli NGO’s
acknowledgement of Israel’s apartheid is just
a small step in the right direction,” Al Jazeera,
February 10, 2021. ["The report, titled “A regime
of Jewish supremacy from the Jordan River to the
Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid”, got the
Western world talking about the real nature of
the so-called “Israeli democracy” and paved the
way for the many parallels between modern-day
Israel and apartheid South Africa to be discussed
in the mainstream. Neither Edward Said nor
Archbishop Desmond Tutu was able to do that.
The UN special rapporteurs on the human rights
situation in the occupied Palestinian territories,
such as Richard Falk and John Dugard, were not
able to do that either. To be taken seriously, and
find itself a place in the pages of Western
newspapers, the statement that “Israel is an
apartheid state” had to come from Israeli
Jews themselves.”]

Eid, Haidar. "Israel’s nation-state law: Apartheid
. After approving the 'new' nation-state law,
we seem to be heading to the inevitable: a confrontation
with Jewish supremacy in its ugliest form,” Middle East
Eye, July 24, 2018. ["This is why I am, as a Palestinian
descendent of refugees from the ethnically cleansed
village of Zarnouqa, entitled to my internationally
sanctioned right of return….Unlike the new
post-apartheid South Africa, in the state of Israel
all human beings are not equal. Israel now defines
itself as a "Jewish state". And since almost 22
percent of the citizens of Israel are Palestinians,
they are excluded from being citizens of that state.
(There are a further four million Palestinians living
under direct military occupation in the Gaza Strip
and the West Bank). Israel is not a state for all
its citizens.”]

Eid, Haidar. "Nadine Gordimer: Stand
against Israel’s apartheid too
,” Electronic
Intifada, April 25, 2008. ["They wonder in
amazement, as do I, that you might have
missed Archbishop Desmond Tutu’s
contention that conditions in Israeli-
occupied Palestine are worse than those
under apartheid? They ask how you can
ignore UN human rights observer John
Dugard’s dispassionate and insightful
report on the dismal state of human
rights in the occupied territories? Surely,
you have not been unaware of South
African minister Ronnie Kasrils’ writings
following his latest visit to Gaza and the
West Bank? Like you, these three men,
all South Africans, were also active in
the fight against racism and apartheid.
Dugard’s words on Palestine are very
significant: “I certainly have a sense of
deja vu … The sad thing is that Israel is
unwilling to learn from the South
African precedent.” In an article titled
“Apartheid: Israelis adopt what South
Africa dropped,” Dugard observed that
the human rights situation in the
occupied territories continues to
deteriorate and called the conditions
“intolerable, appalling, and tragic for
ordinary Palestinians.” Significantly,
Dugard made shocking parallels
between the situation in Palestine
and your country South Africa under
apartheid: “Many aspects of Israel’s
occupation surpass those of the
apartheid regime. Israel’s large-scale
destruction of Palestinian homes,
leveling of agricultural lands, military
incursions and targeted assassinations
of Palestinians far exceed any similar
practices in apartheid South Africa.”]

Eid, Haidar. "On solidarity with Palestine. We
must move international solidarity with Palestine
beyond the grassroots towards implementing
sanctions against Israel until it complies with
international law,” Mondoweiss, March 4, 2021.
["The fact that some Black South Africans
accepted the Bantustan system, did not
convince the international community of the
“legitimacy” and “humanity” of apartheid
and its “right to exist.” What needs to be
emphasized, within this context, is the
similarities between apartheid and the
exclusivist Zionist nature of Israel.”]

Eid, Haidr and Andy Clarno. “Rethinking
Our Definition of Apartheid: Not Just a
Political Regime
,” Al-Shabaka, August 27,
2017. ["As Israel intensifies its settler-colonial
project, apartheid has become an increasingly
important framework for understanding and
challenging Israeli rule in historic Palestine.
Under international law, apartheid is a crime
against humanity and states can be held
accountable for their actions. However,
international law has its limitations. To bring
about true justice and equality for Palestinians,
apartheid must be recognized as a system not
only of legal racial discrimination, but also of
racial capitalism.”]

El-Ad, Hagai. "Bullets, Brutality and Bulldozers:
What Israeli Apartheid Is Really Like
A dead
activist, a detained child, a demolished home:
Just another day in Israel’s arrogant, immoral
efforts to erase Palestinian identity, life and
dignity,” Ha’aretz, February 2, 2022.

El-Ad, Hagai. "We are Israel's largest human rights
group – and we are calling this apartheid
. The
systematic promotion of the supremacy of one group
of people over another is deeply immoral and must
 The Guardian [UK], January 12, 2021. [“Although
there is demographic parity between the two peoples
living here, life is managed so that only one half enjoy
the vast majority of political power, land resources,
rights, freedoms and protections. It is quite a feat to
maintain such disfranchisement. Even more so, to
successfully market it as a democracy (inside the
“green line” – the 1949 armistice line), one to which
a temporary occupation is attached. In fact, one
government rules everyone and everything between
the river and the sea, following the same organising
principle everywhere under its control, working to
advance and perpetuate the supremacy of one group
of people – Jews – over another – Palestinians. This
is apartheid.”]

Eldar, Akiva. "Creating a Bantustan in Gaza.
South Africa will be very interested in the Israeli
disengagement plan published yesterday. The
political, military, and economic aspects of the
plan for the Gaza Strip and the enclave in the
northern West Bank are amazingly similar to
the homelands, one of the last inventions of
the white minority in South Africa to
perpetuate its rule over the black majority,”
Haaretz, April 16, 2004.

Elmer, Jon and Uri Davis. “Apartheid Israel,”
Z Magazine/ZNet, September 19, 2004.
["So, one cannot talk of Israeli citizenship
in the same sense that one could talk of
Canadian citizenship, because – racist
practices and popular xenophobia in
Canada notwithstanding – all citizens
are equal before the law. This is not so
in Israel: Jewish citizens are citizens of
class A, and non-Jews are second, third
and fourth class citizens. / Elmer: A
classic apartheid construction – / Davis:
A classic apartheid construction when it
refers to the essential attributes of the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict…”]

Erakat, Noura. "Beyond Discrimination:
Apartheid is a Colonial Project and Zionism
is a form of Racism
,” EJIL:Talk!, July 5,
2021. ["In this essay, I will explore the
dominant Palestinian tradition first by
highlighting Palestinian intellectual thought
on Zionism as a form of racism and racial
discrimination. I will also review the
legal analysis underpinning Israel’s
apartheid regime, which reflects its
Zionist ideology rather than the outcome
of a failed political project to establish a
Palestinian state. The essay will then show
how Zionism is better understood as a
political and intellectual analog of
apartheid in order to emphasize that
Israel did not become a discriminatory
regime but is defined by such
discrimination. I will conclude with
thoughts on the international responsibility
to end the apartheid of our time.”]

Erakat, Noura. "The structural roots of Israeli apartheid.
Recent rulings by the Israeli high court have made a
mockery of the concepts of equality, justice, and
dignity for all,” Al Jazeera, October 29, 2013. [“Within
Israel, the ban on family reunification has forced
Palestinian citizens, constituting approximately 20
percent of Israel’s population, to build their families
and lives outside of their place of birth if they marry
a Palestinian from the Occupied Territories or a resident
of an “enemy state”. After the Israeli High Court upheld
the discriminatory ban, Israeli Knesset member Yaakov
Katz explained “… the State of Israel was saved from
being flooded by 2-3 million Arab refugees“. The
intended purpose of Israeli laws, policies, and decrees
within the state, as well as the Occupied Territories,
is to diminish the Palestinian population. Under
international law, this policy amounts to forced
population transfer. In common speech, it is ethnic
cleansing – sometimes by Israeli military might and
sometimes via the law.”]

Erakat, Noura and John Reynolds.
Understanding Apartheid. Embracing
a radical critique of Israeli apartheid is
a precondition for bringing it to a just
,” Jewish Currents, Summer 2022.
[“Western human rights organizations’
acknowledgement that Israel oversees
an apartheid regime constitutes a
considerable step forward. The next
step is to recognize the role of Zionism
both in giving rise to apartheid and in
perpetuating its practice: to consider
Zionism’s ideological origins, its
intellectual and political bedfellows
across colonial geographies, its many
victims, and its mounting and
devastating costs.”]

Erakat, Noura and John Reynolds.
"We Charge Apartheid? Palestine and
the International Criminal Court
,” Third
World Approaches to International Law
Review, no. 33 (April 20, 2021). [“Noura
Erakat & John Reynolds reflect on Palestinian
efforts to engage the International Criminal
Court, in the context of Israeli
settler-colonialism and both its spectacular
and structural violence. Conscious of the
limits of international criminal law, they think
about Palestinian activist legal tactics – and
the charge of the crime of apartheid in
particular – in relation to political strategy.”]

Falcone, Daniel. "On Israel as an Apartheid
State: an Interview with Richard Falk
CounterPunch, February 11, 2022. [“I
never for a minute expected the U.S.
Government, including Congress, to accept
an accusation of apartheid directed at
Israel, no matter how impeccable the
source and how persuasive the evidence
and analysis.”]

Falk, Richard. "A Debate on Peacemaking:
Ending Occupation or Apartheid
,” RichardFalk.org,
March 9, 2018. ["This post consists of an exchange
of views prompted by my talk at a United Methodist
Church in Culver City (Los Angeles) published by
Tikkun’s online magazine, March 6, 2018. The core
disagreement is whether to retain the emphasis on
ending occupation as still the best, and some say, the
only path to peace, and my view that a sustainable
peace can only be obtained by a process of eliminating
the apartheid structure by which Israel currently
subjugates the Palestinian people as a whole (that is,
including those living as a minority in pre-1967 Israel
or in refugee camps spread across neighboring countries
or as involuntary exiles in the Palestinian global

Falk, Richard. “Contra Israeli Apartheid,”
RichardFalk.org, December 1, 2019. [“The
text below is a modified version of remarks
made at the opening plenary session of the
“1st Global Conference on Israeli Apartheid:
Dimensions, Repercussions and the Means to
Combat It,” 29-30 November 2019, Istanbul./
…. What made this linkage of fragmentation
and apartheid so important was that it was an
inclusive way of understanding the scope of the
distinctiveness of Israeli apartheid, embracing
refugees, exiles, minority, and occupied Palestine
in a single indivisible framework of victimization
by way of racist domination of one ethnicity over
another. This meant that if apartheid, as thus
understood, were to be credibly dismantled, it
would have to give equal status to Palestinians
formerly marginalized or ignored by the long
prevailing peace formula of expectations arising
from an emphasis on the ‘land for peace’ slogan.”]

Falk, Richard. "The Inside Story on Our UN
Report Calling Israel an Apartheid State
. A
people cannot be permanently repressed in
all these ways without viewing the structure
that has emerged as an apartheid regime,” The
Nation, March 22, 2017. ["What is striking about
this response, which resembles in many respects
the US government response to the Goldstone
Report (the UN Fact-Finding Mission on theGaza
Conflict of 2008-9), is the degree to which
Israel’s supporters, in response to criticism,
have sought to discredit the messenger rather
than address the message.”]. Also see
“somewhat modified version” (in
RichardFalk.org., March 26, 2017):
Is Israel an Apartheid State?

Falk, Richard and Virginia Q. Tilley.
Israeli Practices towards the Palestinian
People and the Question of Apartheid
Palestine and the Israeli Occupation, Issue
No. 1” (Beirut: UNESCWA, 2017),
E/ESCWA/ECRI/2017/1. [Also available
as a downloadable pdf here.]

Falk, Richard and Virginia Q. Tilley.
“Update to the ESCWA Report of 15
March 2017 “Legal Inquiry into Israel as
an Apartheid State,” prepared for the 1st
Global Conference on Dimensions, HIC-HLRN
| 15 15 Repercussions of Israeli Apartheid
and the Means to Combat it, Istanbul,
Turkey, 29–30 November 2019.

Farsakh, Leila. "Independence, Cantons, or Bantustans:
Whither the Palestinian State?
”  Middle East Journal
Vol. 59, No. 2, Changing Geopolitics (Spring, 2005), pp.
230-245 (16 pages).

Finkelstein, Norman G. "The Jewish supremacist
state (A comment on B’Tselem’s ‘apartheid regime’
designation for Israel)
,” Mondoweiss, January 15, 2021.
["Henceforth, supporters of Palestinian rights should
at every possible occasion bring home the point,
“Israel, which is a Jewish supremacist state,…” “Benjamin
Netanyahu, the Jewish supremacist prime minister of
Israel…,” “the Anti-Defamation League and the British
Board of Deputies, which support the Jewish supremacist
state of Israel,…” If taken to task on this point, the
simple reply should be, “But one of Israel’s leading
human rights organizations has concluded that Israel
is organized around the principle of Jewish

France, Steve. "Another Christian church
condemns ‘apartheid in the Holy Land’: The
New England Conference of the United
Methodist Church condemned Israel’s
apartheid system June 11 by an 88 percent
majority, “ Mondoweiss, June 17, 2022.
[“(T)he New England Annual Conference…
recognizes that the Israeli government has
established a system of apartheid, affirms
that apartheid is antithetical to the Gospel
message, and opposes this injustice and
oppression in whatever form it presents itself.”]

France, Steve. "Harvard Law School ‘apartheid’
report leaves Israel’s defenders speechless
Harvard Law School's International Human Rights
Clinic's recent report declaring that Israel is
practicing apartheid is a victory for Palestinian
human rights,” Mondoweiss, April 5, 2022.

France, Steve. "Mainline church labels Israel an
Apartheid state, and more churches are sure to
. “We reject Israel’s apartheid system of laws
and legal procedures," the United Church of Christ
stated at its general synod, in a resolution approved
by 83 percent of members despite an appeal by the
American Jewish Committee,” Mondoweiss, July
22, 2021.

France, Steve. "What John Dugard tells us
about apartheid in South Africa and Israel/Palestine
Mondoweiss, June 7, 2021. ["The murkiness of Israeli
rules helps disguise them, which aggravates the
injustice of the Israeli form of apartheid and is a key
reason for Dugard’s damning verdict: “If one looks
at the situation as a whole, … at the way in which
Israel applies a policy of apartheid in the occupied
Palestinian territory … there is no doubt that Israel’s
transgressions, its violations of international law, far
exceed those of apartheid in South Africa.” / “The
central untruth of Zionism was the belief that
Palestine was a “land with no people.” When that
turned out to be untrue, Jewish Zionist settlers
silently amended the doctrine to mean “a land with
no people who matter.”]

Gessen, Masha. "Why an Israeli Human-Rights
Organization Decided to Call Israel an Apartheid
,” The New Yorker, January 27, 2021.
["B’Tselem appears to be the first Jewish-Israeli
human-rights organization to use the term
“apartheid” to refer to the Israeli regime in its
entirety, though Palestinian activists have been
using it for years….There is, of course, no
guarantee that B’Tselem’s statement will
enable change, although it has infuriated
the government and opened the organization
up to attacks from the powerful Israeli right.
But, after a year of discussions, B’Tselem
concluded that “we have a moral obligation
to say it, whether we think it’s effective or
not,” El-Ad said. There comes a time to say
that a line has been crossed, even if the
breach occurred long ago.”]

Giles, Kevin. "Justifying Injustice with the
Bible: Apartheid
,” CBE International, April 20,
2016. ["This theology was backed by virtually
every Reformed theologian in South Africa. The
unambiguous and overwhelming support of
Apartheid by the Reformed churches justified and
legitimated the system. One of their most
respected theologians, F. Potgeiter, summed
up what was believed: "It is quite clear that no
one can ever be a proponent of integration on the
basis of the scriptures. It would be in a direct
contradiction of the revealed will of God to plead
for a commonality between whites, coloured, and
Blacks.” Similarly, an official statement of the
Reformed church stated, "The principle of apartheid
between races and peoples, also separate missions
and churches, is well supported by scripture.” It was
costly for any Reformed minister in South Africa to
oppose this appeal to the Bible in support of
Apartheid. They were branded as opponents of
the church to which they belonged and worse,
opponents of what the Bible so plainly endorsed.”] 

Gordon, Neve. "Time to boycott Israel,” The Guardian
[UK], August 21, 2009. ["The most accurate way to
describe Israel today is as an apartheid state. For
more than 42 years, Israel has controlled the land
between the Jordan Valley and the Mediterranean
sea. Within this region about 6 million Jews and
close to 5 million Palestinians reside. Out of this
population, 3.5 million Palestinians and almost
half a million Jews live in the areas Israel occupied
in 1967, and yet while these two groups live in the
same area, they are subjected to totally different
legal systems. The Palestinians are stateless and
lack many of the most basic human rights. By
sharp contrast, all Jews – whether they live in the
occupied territories or in Israel – are citizens of
the state of Israel.”]

Greenstein, Ran. "Colonial Legacies and the
Post-colonial African state
,” in “Review
Symposium: Mahmood Mamdani and the
Analysis of African Society,” African
Sociological Review, 1 (2), August 1997
["His argument for looking at South Africa
as one among many African societies and
states facing similar problems and
opportunities - its unique racial structure
notwithstanding - is particularly welcome
at the current conjuncture, as it offers a
fresh perspective on the challenges of
development in the post-Cold War world.
At the same time,the thesis presents certain
difficulties of a methodological, historical
and theoretical nature.”] 

Greenstein, Ran. “Colonialism, Apartheid
and the Native Question: The Case of
,” in Racism After Apartheid:
Challenges for Marxism and Anti-Racism,
ed. Vishwas Satgar, Wits University Press,
2019, pp. 75-95. [“Is the concept of
apartheid, increasingly applied to this
case, a good conceptual substitute for
settler colonialism?”] Also see
Greenstein, Ran. "
Settler Colonialism:
A Useful Category of Historical
” Jadaliyya, June 6, 2016.

Greenstein, Ran. “Israel, Palestine, and
,”  Insight Turkey, Winter 2020,
Volume 22, Number 1 / Also see
University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa;
ORCID No: 0000-0001-6910-4420, DOI:
10.25253/99.2020221.06, Page: pp. 73-92

Greenstein, Ran. “On Mandela’s legacy:
Three political innovations
,” +972, December
6, 2013. ["The first innovation was the move
toward mass mobilization and popular
struggle….The second innovation was the
link between political and social struggle
themes….The third innovation was the move
to transcend the racial boundaries created
by the apartheid regime.”] Also see: Kaufman,
Ami. "The top five most hypocritical Mandela
eulogies by Israeli politicians
,” +972,
December 6, 2013.

Haaretz. "Desmond Tutu: U.S. Christians Must
Recognize Israel as Apartheid State
. Veteran
anti-apartheid campaigner Desmond Tutu wants
Presbyterian Church, currently meeting in Detroit,
to pass series of anti-Israel resolutions,” Haaretz,
June 17, 2014.

Haaretz. “Pioneer Jewish South African
Freedom Fighter Calls Israel ‘Apartheid
.’ Denis Goldberg, aided by Israel
in 1985 release from S.A. prison, says
even Israel's treatment of Arab citizens
counts as apartheid,” July 28, 2015.

Halper, Jeff. "Nishul (Displacement): Israel’s
form of Apartheid," Israeli Committee Against House
Demolitions, February 6, 2007. [Download pdf here.]

Harris, Jr., Brice. ‘The South Africanization
of Israel,” Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 3
(Summer 1984), pp. 169-189. [Open access.]

Hasan, Mehdi. "Israel: Democracy or Apartheid?
Mehdi Hasan and Noura Erakat break down this
week’s Israeli elections
,” The Intercept, September
19, 2019. ["That’s my guest today, the Palestinian
American lawyer, author and activist Noura Erakat.
The big question I want to ask her is: regardless of
these non-stop elections, is Israel an apartheid state?”]

Hasan, Mehdi. "Saying Israel is guilty of
apartheid isn't antisemitic. Just ask these
Israeli leaders
. An open letter from four Jewish
Democrats really misses the mark,” MSNBC, May
27, 2021. ["I would ask the four drafters of the
letter if I am now antisemitic for agreeing with
Human Rights Watch’s 213-page report detailing
how “deprivations” of Palestinian rights by Israel
are now “so severe that they amount to the
crimes against humanity of apartheid and
persecution?” Is my award-winning MSNBC
colleague Ali Velshi, who recently said — and
wrote — that “the idea that it’s even remotely
controversial to call what Israel has imposed
on Palestinians a form of apartheid is laughable,”
an antisemite as well? (Ali, incidentally, is the
child of brown South African parents who left
that country because of, wait for it, apartheid.)”]

Hasan, Mehdi. "Top Israelis Have Warned of Apartheid, so Why
the Outrage at a UN Report? 
Pressure from the U.S. and Israel
forced out a United Nations official, but plenty of Israelis have
spoken about their country becoming an apartheid state,” The
Intercept, March 22, 2017.

Hass, Amira. "The Problem With Talking About
Israeli Apartheid
,” Haaretz, July 5, 2021. [“The
problem is that in all the heat of the talk about
apartheid, a dynamic, active and dangerous
dimension of it – the Jewish settler colonialism –
has become dulled and blunted. According to the
ideology and policies of Jewish settler colonialism,
the Palestinians are superfluous. In short, it is
possible, worthwhile and desirable to live without
the Palestinians in this country between the river
and the sea. Their existence here is conditional,
dependent on our wishes and our goodwill – a
matter of time. The ideology of “superfluousness”
is a poison that spreads especially when the
process of settler colonialism is at its height.
And that is currently the situation in the West
Bank (including East Jerusalem.)….. But at a time
when the definition of the Israeli regime as
apartheid is becoming rooted in international
discourse, the element of the “superfluousness”
of Palestinians becomes blurred.”] Article archived here.

Hawara, Yara. "Amnesty Is Right: Israel Is
an Apartheid State
. Today, Amnesty
International becomes the third major
human rights organisation to describe
Israel as an apartheid state – a sign that
international sentiment is turning against
its oppression of Palestinians,” Tribune [UK],
February 1, 2022. ["Meanwhile, Palestinian
scholars and activists have for decades
argued that the oppression they face stems
from an intricate and complicated form of
apartheid. Further, they argue that this is a
direct result of the Zionist settler colonial
project which began a century ago in
Palestine. It is this particular context—of
settler colonialism—that is often missed
out by human rights organisations working
within a framework of international law.
Indeed there are limited provisions for
addressing colonialism and settler
colonialism within international law.
This is why many Palestinians argue for
a more holistic understanding of the
situation in Palestine—one that isn’t
solely reliant on international law. The
context of settler colonialism is even
more crucial when thinking about the
end game. The danger is that calls to
end apartheid become solely about a
liberal framing of equality, rather than
one that is intertwined with justice
and decolonisaiton.”]

Hawari, Yara. "Apartheid from Within? The Palestinian
Citizens of Israel
,” Al-Shabaka, November 23, 2017.
["Executive Summary: The term apartheid is often used
to refer to the situation of the Palestinians under
occupation. Al-Shabaka Policy Fellow Yara Hawari
examines the application of the term to the Palestinian
citizens of Israel by focusing on citizenship, land,
education, and politics. She also discusses whether
such analysis can advance this community’s rights
and counter fragmentation among Palestinians
as a whole.”]

Hicks, Donna. "Rejection of Israel’s
apartheid deepens as Episcopalians
move toward crucial conclave
,” Episcopal
Peace Fellowship Palestine Israel Network,
February 2, 2022. ["Episcopalians in the
Diocese of Washington voted big against
Israel’s treatment of Palestinians on 29
January, adopting resolutions to “oppose
Israel’s apartheid” (by 73%), to “confront
Christian Zionism” (by 76%), and to
“defend the right to boycott” (by 80%),
which is under assault from anti-BDS laws
enacted in dozens of states and
championed in Congress. The latest
church action followed the passing of
similar resolutions by Episcopalians in
the Dioceses of Chicago and Vermont.
Resolutions supporting the right to boycott
and condemning the ongoing Israeli
occupation, segregation, and oppression
of the Palestinian people have been
passed by the Episcopal Dioceses of
Rochester and of Olympia, respectively.
All of this is aimed at the denomination’s
General Convention in Baltimore in July.”]

Hijab, Nadia and Ingrid Jaradat Gassner. “Talking
Palestine: What Frame of Analysis? Which Goals
and Messages?
” Al-Shabaka, April 12, 2017.
[Al-Shabaka: "Nadia Hijab and Ingrid Jaradat
Gassner argue that the multiplicity of
frameworks of analysis describing the
Palestine question creates confusion around
goals and messages. They review the strengths
and drawbacks of each and recommend the
anti-apartheid framework as the most strategic
method of analysis around which Palestinians
can come together and work toward a clear
set of goals.”]

Hixon, Walter L. "Israeli Apartheid: Calling It Like It Is,”
Washinton Report on Middle East Affairs, January, 2021.
["Sawsan Zaher of the Adalah Legal Center for Minority
Rights in Israel pointed out that although Palestinians
living within Israel’s borders might vote, serve in the
legislature or as judges, the 2018 Jewish nation-state
law mandates “ethnic supremacy” by defining Israel as
a “Jewish state” in which Hebrew is the official
language. “Discrimination and segregation and
ethnic supremacy” have thus been enshrined in
the constitution. Ironically, Zaher added, the basic
law “helped us a lot” because it “elevated reality to
the constitutional level.”]

Holmes, Oliver. "Israel is a non-democratic
apartheid regime, says rights group
. Embassy
spokesperson rejects ‘false claims’ in report that
alleges policies perpetuate supremacy of Jews over
Palestinians,” The Guardian [UK], January 11, 2021.
["Israel is not a democracy but an “apartheid regime”
that enforces Jewish supremacy over all the land it
controls, a leading domestic rights group has alleged
in a position paper bound to provoke fierce
controversy….B’Tselem said it rejected the dominant
assumption that Israel operates two separate systems
of rule concurrently – a democracy within its sovereign
territory while maintaining a half-century military grip
over Palestinians in the occupied territories. 
“Israel is
not a democracy that has a temporary occupation attached
to it,” said the body’s executive director, Hagai El-Ad.
“It is one regime between the Jordan River to the
Mediterranean Sea, and we must look at the full
picture and see it for what it is: apartheid.”]

Holmes, Oliver. "'One more racist law': reactions
as Israel axes Arabic as official language.
state’ law gives Jews exclusive rights over Arabs who
make up fifth of Israel’s population,” The Guardian
[UK], July 19, 2018. ["The passing of a law in Israel
that affords exclusive rights to Jewish people and
removes Arabic as an official language has rippled
through the country’s Arab minority, who have
decried the legislation as unabashedly racist.”]

Horowitz, Adam. "Henry Siegman:
Israel is ‘the only apartheid regime
in the Western world
,’” Mondoweiss,
,January 8, 2010. ["This is from Henry
Siegman in The Nation. Just a reminder,
Siegman was Executive Director of the
American Jewish Congress from 1978
to 1994, and has been connected to the
Council on Foreign Relations….Siegman:
"Israel’s relentless drive to establish “facts
on the ground" in the occupied West
Bank, a drive that continues in violation
of even the limited settlement freeze
to which Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu committed himself, seems
finally to have succeeded in locking in
the irreversibility of its colonial project.
As a result of that "achievement,” one
that successive Israeli governments
have long sought in order to preclude
the possibility of a two-state solution,
Israel has crossed the threshold from
"the only democracy in the Middle East
”to the only apartheid regime in the
Western world. . .”]

Housing and Land Rights Network: Habitat
International Coalition. "
Russell Tribunal:
"Israel Practices Apartheid
,” November 8, 2011.
["The Russell Tribunal on Palestine has found
that Israel's practices against the Palestinian
people are in breach of the prohibition of apartheid
under the international law. After two days of
intense inquiry and expert witness testimony,
following the review of reams of documentation,
the eminent jury of nine international experts
delivered its conclusions at Cape Town on Monday,
7 November. The Tribunal concluded unanimously
that “Israel subjects the Palestinian people to an
institutionalized regime of domination amounting
to apartheid as defined under international law.”
The jury reached this conclusion having paid
particular attention to the legal definition of
apartheid and ensuring that each of the defining
criteria was met.”]

Human Rights Watch. "A Threshold Crossed.
Israeli Authorities and the Crimes of
Apartheid and Persecution
,” April 27,
2021. [“...Israeli authorities methodically
privilege Jewish Israelis and discriminate
against Palestinians. Laws, policies, and
statements by leading Israeli officials make
plain that the objective of maintaining Jewish
Israeli control over demographics, political
power, and land has long guided government
policy. In pursuit of this goal, authorities have
dispossessed, confined, forcibly separated,
and subjugated Palestinians by virtue of
their identity to varying degrees of
intensity. In certain areas, as described in
this report, these deprivations are so severe
that they amount to the crimes against
humanity of apartheid and persecution.”]

Human Rights Watch. "Q&A: A Threshold
. Israeli Authorities and the Crimes
of Apartheid and Persecution,” April
27, 2021.

Independent. "Apartheid Israel can be defeated, says Winnie.
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, former president of the African
National Congress Women's League, said on Thursday:
"Apartheid Israel can be defeated, just as apartheid in South
Africa was defeated,” March 26, 2004.

Independent Jewish Voices Canada [IJV]. “Talking About
Apartheid: IJV Fact Sheet
,” October 25, 2019.

International Press Center [IPC]. “Arun Ghandi: Occupation
"Ten Times Worse than Apartheid
August 29, 2004

Iraqi, Amjad. "Palestinians are tired of proving
Israeli apartheid exists
. There is nothing that an
annexation bill can tell us that decades of Israeli
laws and policies haven’t already,” +972, June
17, 2020. ["Now they are sounding the alarm that
next month could be the tipping point that finally
seals this fate. / It is rather obscene, however, that
many people are still waiting for a specific piece of
legislation, or a certain government order, to validate
the accounts of millions of Palestinians experiencing
apartheid as we speak. Like South Africa, Israel’s
complex regime was not created by a single dramatic
“moment”: it was meticulously designed over decades,
fueled by an ideology that rejected equality between
the natives and the settlers who, in Reitz’s words,
had “made this land their home.” / Why, for example,
was Israel not an apartheid state in 1950, when it
introduced the Absentees’ Property Law to transfer
Arab land to Jewish immigrants? Why wasn’t it apartheid
when the Knesset annexed East Jerusalem in 1980, in
the same way it is preparing to do with the Jordan
Valley today? Or in 2003, when it banned Palestinians
from uniting with family members who have Israeli
citizenship, yet still allowed any Jew abroad to be
naturalized under the Law of Return?”]

Isilow, Hassan. "South African president
expresses solidarity with Palestine. Ramaphosa
says situation in Palestine reminds him of what
happened to millions during apartheid
,” Andalou
Agency, May 17, 2021.

Jabareen, Hassan. "The Israeli Regime of
Hafradah (Separation in English and
Apartheid in Afrikaans)
,” Adalah Newsletter,
Vol. 47, April 2008. ["In the occupied West
Bank today there is Apartheid, by all standards,
despite the fact that, officially speaking,
there are no laws supporting the policy of
apartheid. For example, there are Apartheid
roads in the West Bank and checkpoints solely
set up for Palestinians, while by contrast, Jews
enjoy freedom of movement. These policies
are not established or written in law whereas
under Apartheid, such policies were
incorporated in clear laws. In this context, we
can perceive that today we have entered into
a new stage, one in which Israel is displaying
willingness to adopt directly racist laws….This
development and escalation occurred due to the
emergence of a new Israeli strategic regime,
called Hafradah or “separation” in English and
Apartheid in Afrikaans, which aims to redefine
the Jewishness of the state. Once Israel had
completed its project of expansion and
establishing control over historic Palestine, it
found that it had became impossible to carry
on in this state of permanent control.”]

Jabareen, Yousef. "Israel just dropped the
pretense of equality for Palestinian citizens
Los Angeles Times, July 20, 2018. [“The
so-called “Jewish nation-state” bill
formalizes in Israeli law the superior
rights and privileges that Jewish
citizens of the state enjoy over its
indigenous Palestinian minority, who
comprise roughly 20% of the population.
It demotes Arabic from one of two official
languages to a mere “special” status,
deepens racial segregation by directing
the government to “encourage and
promote” Jewish settlement, and declares
that the right to self-determination in
Israel is “exclusive” to the Jewish people,
denying the history and ancient Palestinian
roots in this land. It also prioritizes the
Jewishness of the state over its
democratic character, omitting any
reference to “democracy” or “equality.”
…. The nation-state bill further
marginalizes my community and
entrenches Israel’s regime of racial
discrimination and deterioration
into apartheid."

Jamjoum, Hazem. "Refugees: Israeli
Apartheid’s Unseen Dimension
,” Al-Shabaka,
June 20, 2012. [“...forced population transfer,
including the denial of refugee return, lies at
the core of Israel’s brand of apartheid.”]
[Al-Shabaka: "Hazem Jamjoum discusses the
differences between Israeli and South African
apartheid, including the forced population
transfer and denial of refugee return that
lies at the core of Israeli apartheid.”] 

Jamjoum, Hazem. "Not an analogy: Israel and
the crime of apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, April 3,
2009. ["The South African version of apartheid’s
central tenet was to facilitate the exploitation of as
many Black laborers as possible, whereas the Israeli
version, although exploiting Palestinian workers,
prioritizes the forced displacement of as many
Palestinians as possible beyond the borders of the
state with the aim of eradicating Palestinian
presence within historic Palestine. South African
visitors to Palestine have often commented on the
fact that Israeli use of force is more brutal than
that witnessed in the heyday of apartheid, thus
leading several commentators to adopt the position
that Israel’s practices are worse than apartheid
and that the apartheid label does not go
far enough….[Yet] In terms of law, describing
Israel as an apartheid state does not revolve
around levels of difference and similarity with
the policies and practices of the South African
apartheid regime, and where Israel is an
apartheid state only insofar as similarities
outweigh differences….First, Israel’s crimes
and violations are not limited to the crime of
apartheid. Rather, Israel’s regime over the
Palestinian people combines apartheid,
military occupation and colonization in a
unique manner….The second point worth
reiterating is that Israel’s regime of
apartheid is not limited to the West Bank
and Gaza Strip. In fact, the core of Israel’s
apartheid regime is guided by
discriminatory legislation in the fields
of nationality, citizenship and land

Jewish Voice for Peace. "JVP welcomes
Amnesty International’s report
documenting Israeli apartheid
Press Release, February 1, 2022.
[“Stefanie Fox, Executive Director,
Jewish Voice for Peace: “Legacy
American Jewish institutions like the
ADL, the AJC and the Jewish Federations
should be directing their outrage at the
crimes against humanity that Israel is
perpetrating against Palestinians.
Instead, they are claiming that compiling
a vast body of evidence documenting
Israeli apartheid is somehow harmful to
Jews. Defending Israel’s regime of
supremacy and violence has nothing to
do with Jewish safety. A large and
growing number of American Jews
understand that the only just response
to apartheid is to join the fight for a
future of equality and freedom for all.”]

Jewish Voice for Peace Rabbinic
Council. "
Israeli Apartheid and the
Path to Teshuvah
,” JVP Press
Release/Statement, February 7, 2022.
["The conclusion reached by these three
well-respected human rights organizations
that Israeli governance fits within the
international definition of apartheid is a
renewed calls to people of conscience. We
must examine how the claims of these
reports reveal the ways we are complicit
in sustaining Israeli apartheid, and commit
to repair for the systemic injustice choking
Palestinian lives. May our study lead to
active repair of the harms of apartheid.
This is the only path to teshuvah.”]

Jiryis, Sabri [trans. Inea Bushnaq].
The Arabs in Israel, Monthly Review
Press [MR], New York, New York,
May, 1976.

Kampeas, Ron. "Poll finds a quarter of US
Jews think Israel is ‘apartheid state
,’” Times
of Israel, July 13, 2021. ["A survey of US Jewish
voters taken after the Israel-Gaza conflict finds
that a sizable minority believes some of the
harshest criticisms of Israel, including that it is
committing genocide and apartheid.”]

Karp, Yehudit. "The Time Has Come to
Admit: Israel Is an Apartheid Regime
Haaretz, October 11, 2021. [“…in practice
the High Court of Justice in Israel provided
a legal seal of approval for the existence of
two separate legal systems in the same
geographic area under a single government.
One is privileged for the Jewish citizens of the
ruling authority who live in the region (as
opposed to international law), and whose
human rights are protected, and the
other – discriminatory, oppressive and
Draconian – for those being ruled,
residents of the region, who are identified
based on a different national or ethnic
affiliation. The discriminatory disparity
exists not only in the area of criminal law;
it applies to all the aspects of the lives of
the Palestinians living in the occupied
territories, whose basic and natural human
rights are denied by the occupying power
in the name of the security of the State of
Israel. And as could be understood from the
words of Justice Vogelman – if there is
discrimination in one judicial sphere due
to different laws that apply in the same
territory to two distinct populations – there
is nothing to prevent discrimination in other
spheres as well.”]

Kasrils, Ronnie. "Apartheid in duplicate,” Middle East
Monitor, January 29, 2014. [“(Hendrik Verwoerd) liked
to equate the history and doctrine of the two countries
in an attempt to neutralise Western condemnation of
South Africa, and did so by declaring infamously: "The
Jews took Israel from the Arabs after the Arabs had lived
there for a thousand years. Israel like South Africa, is an
apartheid state." (Rand Daily Mail, 23 Novemeber 1961).
Verwoerd's logic was simple: We have treated our blacks
no differently to what Israel has done to the Arabs. Why
pick on us?”]

Kasrils, Ronnie. "I fought South African apartheid. I
see the same brutal policies in Israel
. I was shut down
in South Africa for speaking out, and I’m disturbed that
the same is happening to critics of Israel now,
” The
Guardian [UK], April 3, 2019.

Kasrils, Ronnie. "Netanyahu and Trump must learn the
lessons of apartheid South Africa
. A people united in a
just struggle with international solidarity, such as the
BDS campaign for Palestinian rights, will achieve justice
in the end
” Middle East Eye, February 24, 2020.

Kattan, Victor. "The Russell Tribunal on Palestine
and the Question of Apartheid
,” Al-Shabaka, November
23, 2011. ["The RToP concluded that “Israel subjects
the Palestinian people to an institutionalized regime
of domination amounting to apartheid as defined
under international law.” It explained that: This
discriminatory regime manifests in varying intensity
and forms against different categories of Palestinians
depending on their location. The Palestinians living
under colonial military rule in the Occupied
Palestinian Territory are subject to a particularly
aggravated form of apartheid. Palestinian citizens
of Israel, while entitled to vote, are not part of the
Jewish nation as defined by Israeli law and are
therefore excluded from the benefits of Jewish
nationality and subject to systematic discrimination
across the broad spectrum of recognised human
rights. Irrespective of such differences, the Tribunal
concludes that Israel’s rule over the Palestinian
people, wherever they reside, collectively
amounts to a single integrated regime
of apartheid.”]

Kattenburg, David. This is apartheid”: an
interview with outgoing UN human rights
official Michael Lynk
Outgoing UN Special
Rapporteur Michael Lynk on how Israel is
practicing apartheid, and the steps the
international community can take to force
Israel to abandon its “fever-dream of
settler-colonialism,” Mondoweiss, May 3, 2022. 

Kennes, Matthias. "Palestinians left out of
Israel's COVID-19 vaccination success story
Doctors Without Borders, February 22, 2021.
[“(Y)ou are over 60 times more likely to have a
vaccination in Israel than in Palestine. According
to the Geneva Conventions, Israel has a
responsibility as an occupying power to ensure
the medical supplies of the occupied population,
including “adoption and application of the
prophylactic and preventative measures
necessary to combat the spread of contagious
diseases and epidemics” to “the fullest extent
of the means available to it.” …. I am outraged….
Israel is an occupying power, and has millions
of vaccines. Palestine is the occupied territory,
and has barely a few thousand vaccines. As a
medic, I don’t really care who sorts this out. As
a medic, I do care deeply that the most
vulnerable are prioritized. I am left with this
shameful thought echoing in my mind—60
times more likely to be vaccinated in Israel than
in Palestine, with the most vulnerable in Palestine
still left unprotected.” Also see: Maureen Clare
Murphy, "Israel makes COVID much worseP

Palestinians lag behind in vaccine efforts as
infections rise
,” March 22, 2021.] 

Khalek, Rania. "How today’s liberal Zionists echo
apartheid South Africa’s defenders
,” Electronic
Intifada, February 13, 2014. ["Liberal Zionists have
adopted the same arguments in defense of Israeli
occupation that conservative opponents of sanctions
on South Africa’s apartheid regime used in the 1980s.”]

Kriek, Anne-Marie. "South Africa
Shouldn't be Singled Out
,” The
Christian Science Monitor, October
12, 1989. ["Contrary to popular
belief, the whites did not take the
country from the blacks. When the
Dutch settled in the Cape in 1652,
they found a barren, largely
unpopulated land. Together with
French and German settlers, they
built a dynamic society….Income
in South Africa is higher for blacks
than in any other African state….Why
is South Africa so harshly condemned
while completely different standards
apply to black Africa?”]

Kuttab, Jonathan. "Human Rights Watch
Exposes Israeli Apartheid
Center Washington DC, May 3, 2021.
While much of what is in the report
has been claimed and documented by
Palestinians for many years, and in turn
acknowledged by other institutions
including the Israeli human rights
organization B’Tselem, HRW’s judgment
is nonetheless quite significant, particularly
at the present time. It is also important
because it moves away from the model
of the occupied territories versus Israel
to one that encompasses the entire area
of historic Palestine, and it describes
policies of legal and systematic
discrimination aimed at dominating
all Palestinians by Israeli Jews.”]

Kuttab, Jonathan. "Is Israel an Apartheid State?” Arab
Center Washington DC, February 6, 2021. [“In essence,
a careful analysis of the convention shows that there are
three elements necessary to find a crime of apartheid: a
regime of separation or segregation on the basis of
race, creed, or ethnicity; the use of a legal system
and legislative measures for enforcement of such
separation; and the commission of inhumane acts
and violations of human rights and denial of freedoms
and forced ghettoization. 
Such violations of human
rights and basic freedoms, while illegal under
international law, do not in and of themselves
necessarily constitute the crime of apartheid. It
is when they are used as a means of controlling
and dominating one group (the Palestinians) by
another (the Israeli state) that they fulfill the
definition of crime of apartheid.”]

Laor, Yitzhak. "Israeli Arabs Have Never Been Equal
Before the Law
. The looming expulsion of thousands
will be carried out with the silent agreement of
enlightened members of society, because maintaining
a Jewish majority is an ideological common denominator
for the overwhelming majority of Israelis,” Haaretz,
January 16, 2012.

Lappin, Yaakov. "Zionist Federation cancels
Haaretz journalist
. Columnist Danny Rubinstein
reportedly likens Israel to apartheid South Africa,”
YNet, August 31, 2007. ["The Zionist Federation of
Great Britain has cancelled a scheduled appearance
by Haaretz columnist Danny Rubinstein, after he
reportedly likened Israel to apartheid South Africa
during a UN conference in Brussels on Thursday.
According to a UN report, Rubinstein said that “Israel
today was an apartheid State with four different
Palestinian groups: those in Gaza, East Jerusalem,
the West Bank and Israeli Palestinians, each of
which had a different status.”] Also see “Haaretz
Editor Refuses to Retract Israel Apartheid Statements
Haaretz editor and board member Danny Rubinstein
insists Israel is an “apartheid state” and that many at
Haaretz agree,” Arutz Sheva [A7], September 5, 2007.

Lazaroff, Tovah. "B’Tselem, for first time, labels
Israel an apartheid state
. Accusation is antisemitic
‘blood libel,’ says law professor,” The Jerusalem
Post, January 12, 2021.

Levy, Gideon. “Not ‘Apartheid in the West
Bank.’ Apartheid
,” Haaretz, January 17, 2021.

Levy, Gideon. “The Duty to End Israeli Apartheid,”
Haaretz, January 20, 2021. [“Israelis will never wake
up one morning and recognize that the occupation
is not good and not just and must be ended. It just
won’t happen. It hasn’t happened for 53 years and
there’s no reason it will suddenly happen now. The
reason can only be provided by the international
community – if it demands that Israel accept
responsibility and be subject to punitive measures.
This is the international community’s right and duty.
/ This duty is all the more compelling when we’re no
longer talking about temporary violations of
international law, fleeting war crimes or a military
occupation like any other. When the occupation
becomes apartheid and defines the identity of the
state, international action is required – yes, just as
happened with South Africa. What worked there
could work here too. Let’s see what happens when
Israelis start to pay for the sins of their state. A true
patriot should yearn for that day. Which is why the
discussion of Israel as an apartheid state is
so important.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Israeli Apartheid? Look No
Further Than This Racist Law
,” Haaretz,
June 20, 2021. ["To put it briefly: After the
Law of Return, this is the law that exemplifies
more than any other the domination of Jewish
supremacism in this country. A Jew can share
his life with whomever he or she chooses, and
an Arab can’t. Just like that, despairingly and
painfully simple. Any country that treated its
Jewish citizens like that would be reviled.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Not ‘Apartheid in the West Bank.’
,” Haaretz, January 17, 2021. ["It’s impossible
to speak any longer about “apartheid in the territories.”
It’s impossible to separate the territories and Israel, and
it’s impossible to consider the occupation temporary.
The conclusion: Israel is an apartheid state. Just as in
South Africa it was ludicrous to talk about democracy,
even though elections were held, it’s ridiculous to view
Israel as a democracy.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Now Israel Has a Race Law.
From now on by court decree, two types of
blood exist in Israel: Jewish blood and
non-Jewish blood,” Haaretz, September 21,
2018. [" This week a new record was set.
Jerusalem District Court Judge Moshe Drori
ruled that a Jew who was injured in a terrorist
attack is entitled to additional compensation,
because he is a Jew, without proof of any
damage, based on the nation-state law, which
states that the government will strive to protect
the well-being of Jews. The circle has been
closed, completed and perfected. Now it is a
real race law, according to the unavoidable
interpretation of the court of the nation-state
law. From now on, two types of blood exist in
Israel: Jewish blood and non-Jewish blood, on
the law books as well. The price of these two
types of blood is also different. Jewish blood is
priceless, it must be protected in every possible
way. Non-Jewish blood is terrifyingly cheap, it
can be shed like water. A situation that existed
until now only de facto, with different standards
and punishments for Jews and others, is from
today by court decree.”]

Levy, Gideon. "President Herzog's Merry Visit to
Israel's Apartheid Schools
,” Haaretz, September 1,
2021. ["The president of the apartheid state and his
wife conducted a state visit this week to “white
farms” in the West Bank. The new president, who
is considered a leftist, visited two of them, one
violent and the other bourgeois, both on stolen
land according to international law. In one, he
toured an ulpana, or girl’s religious school, while
 in the other he visited a Montessori school. That’s
the beauty of the white farms: They contain “the
whole Israeli mosaic,” as the president put it.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Say It With Me: Bennett Is
Establishing an Apartheid State
,” Haaretz,
September 19, 
2021. ["But it’s not just “one
state” that Bennett is establishing. He’s
establishing an apartheid state. That word
"apartheid" needs to appear from now on in
every text. Apartheid will be Israel’s middle
name...."Apartheid” must be said, not for its
lyrical beauty but as a punch to the face of the
world that embraces Bennett....my dear
Europeans, Arabs and Americans, you are
enthusing over a sworn apartheidist. Make
no mistake.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Twilight Zone / 'Worse Than Apartheid’,”
Haaretz, July 9, 2008. ["I thought they would feel right
at home in the alleys of Balata refugee camp, the Casbah
and the Hawara checkpoint. But they said there is no
comparison: for them the Israeli occupation regime is
worse than anything they knew under apartheid. This
week, 21 human rights activists from South Africa visited
Israel. Among them were members of Nelson Mandela’s
African National Congress; at least one of them took part
in the armed struggle and at least two were jailed. There
were two South African Supreme Court judges, a former
deputy minister, members of Parliament, attorneys, writers
and journalists. Blacks and whites, about half of them
Jews who today are in conflict with attitudes of the
conservative Jewish community in their country. Some
of them have been here before; for others it was their
first visit.”]

Levy, Gideon. "We Can Keep Lying to Ourselves
on 'Apartheid,' but Israel Has Crossed the Line
Haaretz, April 28, 2021. Archived version here.
["There’s no longer any way to challenge
the diagnosis of apartheid. Only lying
propagandists can claim that Israel is
a democracy when millions of people
have been living in it for decades under
one of the most tyrannical military regimes in
the world. Neither is there any way to avoid
the fact that all three elements of apartheid
under the The Hague’s Rome Statute, which
are described in the HRW report, exist in
Israel: maintaining the domination of one
racial group over another, systematic
oppression of the marginalized group,
and inhumane acts….But when important
international organizations assert what has
long been reality, that Israel is indeed an
apartheid state, they can no longer look
away in Washington, Berlin, Paris and
London. Someone there also must ask:
Are we permitted to deal with the second
apartheid state with the same tools used
against the first? Why not? Because the
whites here are Jews? Because there was
a Holocaust? What difference does it make?”] 

Levy, Gideon. "You Bet It’s ApartheidWith Ahed
Tamimi's sentence to jail, the truth has come out
about Israel, Haaretz, April 17, 2018. 

Levy, Gideon and Alex Levac. "'This Place
Is Only for Jews': The West Bank's Apartheid
. Settlers have taken over dozens of
springs in the West Bank, all of them on private
Palestinian land, and are keeping the owners
away. Rina Shnerb, a Jewish teen, was murdered
last week at one of them,” Haaretz, August 30,
2019. ["According to Dror Etkes, the founder of
Kerem Navot, an organization that studies Israeli
land policy in the West Bank, there are today more
than 60 springs in the central West Bank that
settlers coveted and seized as part of a project
of plunder that began 10 years ago. The
landscaping and renovation work at about half
of them has been completed, the dispossession
made absolute, the Palestinians blocked from
even approaching the springs and their lands.
Other springs targeted by the settlers are in
various stages of takeover.”]

Lingaas, Carola. "The Crime against Humanity of
Apartheid in a Post-Apartheid World
,” Oslo Law
Review 02 / 2015 (Volume 2).

Los Angeles Times. "Leading Israeli
human rights group calls Israel an ‘apartheid’
,” January 12, 2021. [“One of the
keypoints in our analysis is that this is a single
geopolitical area ruled by one government,”
said B’Tselem director Hagai El-Ad. “This is
not democracy-plus-occupation. This is
apartheid between the river and the
sea…. B’Tselem argues that by dividing up
the territories and using different means of
control, Israel masks the underlying reality:
that roughly 7 million Jews and 7 million
Palestinians, who are mostly Muslims and
Christians, live under a single system with
vastly unequal rights. 
“We are not saying
that the degree of discrimination that a
Palestinian has to endure is the same if
one is a citizen of the state of Israel or if
one is besieged in Gaza,” El-Ad said. “The
point is that there isn’t a single square
inch between the river and the sea in which
a Palestinian and a Jew are equal.”]

Lynch, Mark and Shibley Telhami. “Here’s
how experts on the Middle East see the
region’s key issues, our new survey finds
We asked about their views on the
Israel-Palestine conflict, Iran’s nuclear
program and more,” Washington Post,
February 16, 2021. ["Last week, we
fielded a unique survey of scholars
with expertise in the Middle East….
Perhaps the starkest finding of the survey
is the collective assessment of the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict. A strong
majority, 59 percent, describes the current
reality for Israel and the Palestinians as
“a one-state reality akin to apartheid

Lynfield, Ben. "Marriage law divides Israeli
Arab families
Under new legislation, Arabs
from the occupied territories may no longer
join their spouses in Israel," Christian Science
Monitor, August 8, 2003.

Lynk, Michael. "Calling Israeli Apartheid
What It Is
,” Democracy for the Arab World Now,
June 22, 2022. ["Albert Camus once wrote
that calling things by their wrong name only
adds to the misfortune of the world. I came to
accept that international humanitarian law
could no longer adequately capture the new
legal and political reality in the occupied
Palestinian territory.”]

Lynk, Michael. "Report of the Special
Rapporteur on the situation of Human
Rights in the Palestinian territories occupied
since 1967
(A/HRC/49/87) (Advance
Edited Version),” UN HRC Document,
March 22, 2022. [“With the eyes of the
international community wide open, Israel
has imposed upon Palestine an apartheid
reality in a post-apartheid world.”]

Mac Allister, Karine. "Applicability of the
Crime of Apartheid to Israel
,” BDS and the
Global Anti-Apartheid Movement (Issue
No.38, Summer 2008)

Macintyre, Donald. “'This is like apartheid': ANC
veterans visit West Bank
,” Independent [UK],
July 11,2008.

Macintyre, Donald. “'Racist' marriage law
upheld by Israel
,” Independent [UK], October
22, 2011.

Massad, Joseph. "Israel has long been an
apartheid state. Admitting it now is too little,
too late. Recent acknowledgements by human
rights advocates of Israel's Jewish-supremacist
policies deserve condemnation, not praise - as
they are coming far too late,” Middle East Eye,
May 6, 2021. ["This is not the first time that the
“international community” (read: white western
countries and their liberal intelligentsia) has
insisted on waiting for Ashkenazi Israeli Jews
to confirm what Palestinians had been saying
all along before the claim was believed, let
alone endorsed.”]

Massad, Joseph. "South Africans in Israel:
A home away from home for white colonialists
Historically, South African apartheid was the
model for Zionism in Palestine. A surprising
number of Afrikaners are now converting to
Judaism and making their home in the occupied
territories,” Middle East Eye, October 19, 2021.
["This emigration should be seen in the context
of the long history of collusion and collaboration
between the two settler colonies. The Afrikaner
Jan Smuts, South African prime minister (1919-1924
and 1939-1948) and the only person to sign both
the treaty of Versailles and the UN Charter, was a
major supporter of Zionist colonisation of

McCarthy, Rory. "Barak: make peace with
Palestinians or face apartheid
,” The Guardian
[UK], February 2, 2010. ["As long as in this
territory west of the Jordan river there is only
one political entity called Israel it is going to
be either non-Jewish, or non-democratic,”
Barak said. "If this bloc of millions of
Palestinians cannot vote, that will be an
apartheid state."]

McCarthy, Rory. "Occupied Gaza like apartheid
South Africa, says UN report
,” The Guardian [UK],
Febryary 23, 2007.

McGreal, Chris. "Brothers in arms - Israel’s
secret pact with Pretoria
,” The Guardian [UK],
February 7, 2006. ["During the second
world war the future South African prime
minister John Vorster was interned as a Nazi
sympathiser. Three decades later he was
being feted in Jerusalem. In the second part
of his remarkable special report, Chris
McGreal investigates the clandestine
alliance between Israel and the apartheid
regime, cemented with the ultimate gift
of friendship - A-bomb technology”]

McGreal, Chris. "Worlds apart,” The
Guardian [UK], February 6, 2006. [“Israelis
have always been horrified at the idea
of parallels between their country, a
democracy risen from the ashes of
genocide, and the racist system that
ruled the old South Africa. Yet even
within Israel itself, accusations persist
that the web of controls affecting every
aspect of Palestinian life bears a
disturbing resemblance to apartheid.
After four years reporting from
Jerusalem and more than a decade
from Johannesburg before that, the
Guardian's award-winning Middle East
correspondent Chris McGreal is
exceptionally well placed to assess
this explosive comparison. Here we
publish the first part of his
two-day special report”]

Mack, Eitay. "When Israel supported
boycotts against a white supremacist
. Israel not only boycotted Rhodesia
in the 1960s, it fully backed the armed
liberation movement that would eventually
overthrow its white-led regime,” +972,
March 10, 2021. [“(F)rom the moment Israel
occupied the Palestinian territories, its
honeymoon with African countries came
to an end, and the potential for partnership
with liberation movements and with global
struggles for freedom and equality was
greatly diminished. The new mantra of the
State of Israel became: “Do not interfere in
our internal affairs and we will not interfere
in yours.” …. The position of the State of
Israel — as read aloud by David Ramin in
1966 at the UN General Assembly — on the
importance of freedom, equality, the
independence of nations, and the use of
boycott sounds like science fiction today.”]

Massad, Joseph. "Israel has long been an
apartheid state. Admitting it now is too little,
too late
. Recent acknowledgements by human
rights advocates of Israel's Jewish-supremacist
policies deserve condemnation, not praise - as
they are coming far too late,” Middle East Eye,
May 6, 2021. ["What B’Tselem and HRW
pronounced in their recent reports was only
news to liberal Israeli Jews and the liberal
white US and European intelligentsia whose
commitment to Jewish settler-colonialism in
Palestine has never wavered. Such
pronouncements, however, should not
provoke appreciation or acknowledgment
by Palestinians and their supporters; rather,
they must elicit condemnation of these racist
Israeli and western human rights groups who,
in their recent reports, failed to acknowledge
their own racism and complicity with Israeli
apartheid over the decades, when they
insisted on being blind to Israeli apartheid
while it was in plain sight.”]

Massad, Joseph. "Israel’s right to be racist,”
Electronic Intifada, March 15, 2007. ["The only
thing Israel has asked for, and continues to ask
for in order to end the state of war with the
Palestinians and its Arab neighbors, is that all
recognize its right to be a racist state that
discriminates by law against Palestinians and
other Arabs and grants differential legal rights
and privileges to its own Jewish citizens and to
all other Jews anywhere. The resistance that
the Palestinian people and other Arabs have
launched against Israel's right to be a racist
state is what continues to stand between Israel
and the peace for which it has struggled and
to which it has been committed for decades.”]

Massad, Joseph. "Why the West supports
Israel’s 'right to defend' its apartheid regime
On the 73rd anniversary of the Nakba, the
Palestinian people everywhere are determined
to resist this colonial and racial oppression
and end it once and for all,” Middle East Eye,
May 18, 2021. ["The major reaction of the white
supremacist western countries has been to affirm
unequivocally that they stand by Israel and its
"right" to defend its regime of apartheid and
Jewish supremacy. In response, and on this 73d
anniversary of the Nakba, the beleaguered
Palestinian people everywhere are determined
to resist this ongoing European brand of
colonial and racial oppression and end it once
and for all.”]

McGreal, Chris. "‘Apartheid state’: Israel’s
fears over image in US are coming to pass
The Guardian [UK], February 3, 2022. [“Support
for Israeli government policies is even falling
within the US Jewish community, with a poll
last year finding that 25% of American
Jews agreed that “Israel is an apartheid state”.]

Merryman-Lotze, Mike. "Why AFSC uses the
term “Israeli apartheid
,” American Friends
Service Committee Blog, February 1, 2022.

Middle East Eye. "Former UN chief says
Israeli oppression 'arguably constitutes
/ Ban Ki-moon calls for a new
approach to the conflict that recognises
the 'fundamental asymmetry between the
parties,’” June 29, 2021. [“...[I]t has become
clear that Israel seeks to make its occupation
of the Palestinian territories and “structural
domination" of the Palestinian people
permanent. "This gives the dual legal
regimes imposed in Palestinian territories
by Israel - together with the inhumane and
abusive acts that are carried out against
Palestinians - new significance, resulting
in a situation that arguably constitutes
apartheid," he wrote.”]

Middle East Monitor. "5 ex-European
ministers label Israel an apartheid state
October 28, 2022. ["We must
acknowledge that Israel's policies
against Palestinians amount to the
crime of apartheid," said the group
in a letter published in the French
daily Le Monde. The former ministers
include Danish politician Mogens
Lykketoft;  Finnish politician Erkki
Sakari Tuomioja; Slovenian lawmaker
Ivo Vajgl; Hubert Védrine, a French
Socialist politician and member of
the British House of Lords Baroness
Sayeeda Hussain Warsi. "We see no
alternative but to acknowledge that
Israel's policies and practices against
the Palestinians living in the West
Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza amount
to the crime of apartheid," the letter

Middle East Monitor. "Ex-Speaker
of the Israel Knesset gives up ‘Jewish
nationality' in protest over racist law
January 4, 2021. ["Former Speaker of
the Israeli Knesset, Avraham Burg, has
made the request to have his designation
as a Jew discarded in an extraordinary
affidavit where he has suggested that
belonging to the Jewish community in the
Zionist state was equivalent to “belonging
to the group of the masters”. Burg, who
also served as the country's interim president
and was head of the Jewish Agency, made
the incredible step in response to Israel’s
2018 Nation State Bill. Critics insist that
the law passed by the occupation state
has formalised apartheid.”]

Middle East Monitor. "Israel Democracy
Institute uncovers shocking racism
in 'apartheid state’
,” January 18, 2021.
["A report by the Israel Democracy Institute
has uncovered shocking levels of racism
among the country's Jewish citizens. Dubbed
the Democracy Index, the think tank's 2020
report has been released after a leading human
rights group branded Israel an apartheid state.
The institute found that nearly half of the
country's Jewish population support the idea
of having ethnically separate communities….
More entrenched racist attitudes were highlighted
by the respondents' answer to a question about
working in different communities. While 93 per
cent of the country's Palestinian population said
that they were willing to work in Jewish
communities, only 41 per cent of Jews said
that they were willing to do the reverse.
Similarly, two-thirds of Jewish respondents
(67 per cent) said that they are willing to work
under an Arab supervisor, while a huge
majority of Palestinian respondents (92
per cent) are willing to work for a
Jewish supervisor.”]

Middle East Monitor. "Israel is an
apartheid state so US should stop
aid, say Americans in poll,
” April 1,
2021. ["Carried out by IRmep earlier
in March, the poll asked whether, in
light of the B'Tselem report, Israel
should be a leading recipient of US aid.
Of those who responded, 38.1 per cent
said that Israel should not be a leading
recipient of aid. Just 33 per cent said
that it should continue to receive $3.8
billion per annum from Washington. The
differences are starker when looked at
on a regional basis: 43.4 per cent of
respondents from the north-east of
the US, 39.1 per cent from the mid-west
and 36.2 per cent from the west said
that such a level of US aid should stop.
With 36.1 per cent, those in the American
south are the most likely to want aid to
Israel to continue.”]

Mofeed. Omar. "Israeli apartheid can,
and will, be dismantled. This week marks
Israeli Apartheid Week where students and
people of conscience around the world join
together in a global protest against racism
and discrimination,” Mondoweiss, March 16,
2021. ["While a growing number of organizations
have caught up with us Palestinians in
recognizing apartheid, Israel has continued
to intensify its racist control and domination
of Palestinian lives; from accelerating the
demolition of Palestinian homes in the Occupied
Territory, to continuing to cripple Gaza under
a 15-year land, air, and sea blockade. But we
know racist discrimination isn’t limited to us
Palestinians. Around the world we see racism,
xenophobia, and discrimination grow, often
enabled by the Israeli state’s global allies. The
knee on the necks of racialized people, from
Ferguson to Khirbet Humsa, from Delhi to
Jerusalem, continues to suffocate oppressed

Mohamed, Mohamed. "Israel’s False, Apartheid
,” Palestine Center Brief No. 316
(July 20, 2018). ["Democracy in Israel never
died because it never existed in the first place.
A true democracy would not have over 50
discriminatory laws, many of which have been
passed recently, favoring one group of its citizens
(Jewish Israelis) over another (Palestinians). Until
Israel gets rid of the prejudice that is inherent to
its political system and plagues its society, it
should not complain about being labeled as an
apartheid state.”]

Moleah, Alfred T. Israel and South Africa:
Ideology and Practice," Geneva and Washington
D.C.: The International Organization for the
Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination, 1979. [Downloadable Pdf]

Moleah, Alfred T. Violations of
Palestinian Human Rights: South African
,” Journal of Palestine Studies
10, no. 2 (Winter 1981): 14-36. 

The Movement Against Israeli Apartheid
in Palestine. [
MAIAP history - see the link
“Anti-Apartheid Mobilization”]

Muhareb, Rania. "International Law
and the Palestinian Anti-Apartheid
,” Al-Shabaka, March 23,
2022. ["Without a vision for
decolonization … an anti-apartheid
struggle can, at best, achieve a
“restructuring” of the regime rather
than its dismantlement.”]

Muhareb, Rania. "A state of apartheid:
Amnesty's view on Palestine
,” RTE [Raidió
Teilifís Éireann], February 1, 2022.
["Amnesty's report makes significant
contributions to human rights policy in
Palestine. In some areas, however, it falls
short, not unlike previous international and
Israeli reports on the question. Notably, it
fails to recognise the Palestinian people’s
collective right to self-determination.
Another related challenge, which has also
not been addressed by Human Rights Watch
or Israeli organisations, is the failure to
recognise Zionist settler colonialism as the
underlying logic driving Israeli apartheid.
Patrick Wolfe explains this as settlerc
olonialism's "logic of elimination” of
displacing and replacing indigenous
peoples on the land. Palestinian scholars,
such as Lana Tatour have shown why the
apartheid analysis cannot be divorced from
the settler colonial context that sustains it.
Both Amnesty International and Human Rights
Watch point to the role of Zionist institutions,
such as the Jewish National Fund, in acquiring
Palestinian land and property for exclusive
Jewish settlement. However, neither address
the role of Zionist ideology in driving Israel’s
settler colonial project.”]

Muharib, Rania and Elizabeth
Susan Power, Pearce
Clancy. "
Persecution of Palestinian
Civil Society: Epistemic Violence,
Silencing, and the Apartheid
,” Series: Current Issues
in Depth, Institute for Palestine
Studies, 2022. [Download 42 page
here] ["This monograph argues
that silencing and delegitimization
of Palestinian human rights advocacy,
as epistemic violence, constitute key
tools to entrench Israeli apartheid
over the Palestinian people as a
whole. The arguments here draw
on Article 2(f) of the 1973 Apartheid
Convention, which recognizes as an
inhuman act of apartheid the
“persecution of organizations and
persons, by depriving them of
fundamental rights and freedoms,
because they oppose apartheid.”
Through the weaponization of
“terrorism” smears, the Israeli regime
seeks to discredit decades of
Palestinian antiapartheid knowledge
production, mobilization, activism,
and advocacy for Palestinian liberation,
and to justify the very oppression
Palestinian civil society is working
to challenge.”]

Munayyer, Yousef. "Israel’s New
Government and the Rapid
Acceleration of Apartheid
,” Arab
Center Washington DC, December
29, 2022. ["Palestinians will be
bracing themselves in the coming
months since this new Israeli
government will escalate Israel’s
already rampant policies of ethnic
cleansing and apartheid against them.
With the coming to power of the tag
team of Smotrich, who will light new
fires by letting loose bulldozers in the
West Bank, and Ben-Gvir, who will pour
fuel on those fires by heavily
repressing Palestinian opposition
through his security position,
Palestinians should expect new
levels of unbridled cruelty from
the Israeli government.’]

Munayyer, Yousef. "Not All Israeli Citizens Are
,” New York Times, May 23, 2012. ["In the
1950s new laws permitted the state to take
control over Palestinians’ land by classifying
them “absentees.” Of course, it was the state
that made them absentees by either preventing
refugees from returning to Israel or barring
internally displaced Palestinians from having
access to their land. This last group was ironically
termed “present absentees” — able to see their
land but not to reach it because of military
restrictions that ultimately resulted in their
watching the state confiscate it. Until 1966,
Palestinian citizens were governed under martial
law. / Today, a Jew from any country can move
to Israel, while a Palestinian refugee, with a valid
claim to property in Israel, cannot. And although
Palestinians make up about 20 percent of Israel’s
population, the 2012 budget allocates less than 7
percent for Palestinian citizens. / Tragically for
Palestinians, Zionism requires the state to
empower and maintain a Jewish majority even at
the expense of its non-Jewish citizens, and the
occupation of the West Bank is only one part of it.
What exists today between the Jordan River and
the Mediterranean Sea is therefore essentially one
state, under Israeli control, where Palestinians
have varying degrees of limited rights: 1.5 million
are second-class citizens, and four million more
are not citizens at all. If this is not apartheid, then
whatever it is, it’s certainly not democracy.”]

Munayyer, Yousef. "There Will Be a One-State
Solution. But What Kind of State Will It Be?

Foreign Affairs, October 15, 2019. 

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "HRW: Israel
commits crimes of apartheid and
,” Electronic Intifada, April 27,
2021. ["Human Rights Watch has now
joined a growing consensus finding
that “Jewish supremacy” – in the words
of the human rights group B’Tselem – is
Israel’s “single organizing principle.”
Israel has “pursued an intent to maintain
the domination of Jewish Israelis over
Palestinians throughout the territory it
controls,” Human Rights Watch concludes.
In the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip,
“the intent has been coupled with
systematic oppression of Palestinians
and inhumane acts committed against
them.” The combination of these three
elements “amount to the crime of
apartheid,” the group adds.”]

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "Top Israeli rights
group breaks “apartheid” taboo
,” Electronic
Intifada, January 13, 2021. ["One key aspect
of Israel’s apartheid rule overlooked in B’Tselem’s
position paper is the denial of Palestinian refugees’
right to return – a form of “demographic
engineering” recognized in the ESCWA report
suppressed by the UN. / 
“Israel defends its rejection
of the Palestinians’ return in frankly racist language,”
the ESCWA report states. “It is alleged that Palestinians
constitute a ‘demographic threat’ and that their return
would alter the demographic character of Israel to the
point of eliminating it as a Jewish state.” / The UN body
described Israel’s denial of the right of return as
“integral to the system of oppression and domination
of the Palestinian people as a whole.”]

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "UN expert:
Israel practices apartheid against Palestinians
March 24, 2022. ["Israel perpetrates the crime
of apartheid against Palestinians and third
states should support accountability efforts
at international courts. So states Michael
Lynk, an independent United Nations human
rights expert from Canada, in a new report
submitted to the UN Human Rights Council
in Geneva this week.”]

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "What makes
Amnesty’s apartheid report different?

Electronic Intifada, February 3, 2022.
["Ultimately, Amnesty’s study may not
be fundamentally different from those
that came before. But the context in
which it appears – as international
consensus coalesces around recognizing
Israeli apartheid, an International
Criminal Court investigation is underway
and amid Israeli spyware blowback –
suggests that a new chapter in the
global struggle for Palestinian freedom
may have begun.”]

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "Why Zionist
settler colonialism must be confronted
Electronic Intifada, December 23, 2022.
["The more than 200-page study builds
on decades of Palestinian scholarship
and advocacy and corrects fundamental
flaws in recent publications on apartheid
by Israeli and international human rights
groups. “Zionist settler colonialism and its
eliminatory and population transfer logic
remain missing” from these analyses,
Al-Haq states. Without incorporating this
fundamental aspect of Zionist rule in
Palestine, Israeli and international
organizations aim to counter apartheid
with “liberal equality,” as critiqued by
scholar Lana Tatour. This obscures the
goals of decolonization and liberation
fought for by Palestinians for decades.”]

Nassar, Tamara. "Israeli town halts property
sales after realizing most buyers were Palestinians
Electronic Intifada, March 21, 2018. [“Preventing
Palestinian citizens of Israel “from purchasing
homes due strictly to their national identity is an
illegitimate act,” Adalah added. “In a climate in
which the Israeli Knesset continues to promote
racist legislation targeting Arab citizens, Kfar
Vradim’s council leader feels emboldened to
promote racist policies and to trample the most
basic of democratic principles,” the group stated.”]

National Lawyers Guild Delegation to the
Occupied Palestinian Territories and Israel.
"The Al-Aqsa Intifada and Israel’s Apartheid:
The U.S. Military and Economic Role in the
Violation of Palestinian Human Rights," Report,
New York: National Lawyers Guild, January
2001, 1-74. [Downloadable PDF]

Nebehay, Stephanie. "U.N. rights envoy points to apartheid
in Palestinian areas
,” Reuters, February 24, 2014.

Ngleza, Bangsni and Adri Nieuwhof. Unrecognised
villages in the Negev expose Israel’s apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, December 20, 2005.
["The similarities are striking between racially based
policies that lay behind the creation of white
settlements under the apartheid regime in South
Africa then and the estabslishment of Jewish
settlements by the Israeli government.”]

Nieuwhof, Adri. "Boycotting Israel more urgent than
in case of South Africa, says anti-apartheid veteran
Electronic Intifada, April 6, 2015.

Nieuwhof, Adri. "Israel has no right to be an
apartheid state, says Boycott From Within
,” Electronic Intifada, May 28, 2014.
["Ronnie Barkan: I am a white, male, privileged,
Israeli Jew. The first two characteristics are
decided by nature, the last are decided by the
state. It is important to mention that I am from
the privileged. This is the core we are talking
about. The State of Israel was founded on the
basis of ethnic cleansing, ethnic separation
and ethnic supremacy which was codified into
law. What started in ‘48 carried on under the
guise of the law, to take away the rights of
the others.“]

Nieuwhof, Adri. "South African activist: “Palestine
casts light on our own history
,” Electronic Intifada,
December 5, 2011. ["Israel was declared an apartheid
state during a session of the Russell Tribunal on
Palestine in Cape Town on 7 November. 
Among those
following the tribunal’s deliberations was a group of
young South Africans, including Mbuyiseni Ndlozi of
BDS South Africa, a group campaign for boycott,
divestment and sanctions against Israel, and Joni
Barnard of Artists Against Apartheid.”]

Nieuwhof, Adri. "South Africans recall their own
history during Israeli Apartheid Week
,” Electronic
Intifada, March 26, 2012. ["Israeli Apartheid Week
received broad support among political groups and
national organizations in South Africa. The
Congress of South African Trade Unions, the
South African Students’ Congress, the African
National Congress, the Young Communist League
of South Africa, the South African Council of
Churches, Kairos Southern Africa, Kaleidoscope
LGBTIA Youth Network and South African Artists
Against Apartheid were all motivated to participate
in IAW because of South Africa’s own history of
apartheid. The South African Council of Churches
called on all South Africans and the church in
South Africa to participate in Israeli Apartheid Week.”]

North, James. "The ‘NYTimes’ blackout of
the Amnesty ‘apartheid’ report continues
The Amnesty apartheid report is fading from
view because the New York Times has
refused to cover it,” Mondoweiss, February
18, 2022. ["The New York Times has yet to
publish a single word about Amnesty’s
landmark report. It is now 18 days, and
still nothing has appeared anywhere in the
paper about a report that politicians, the
State Department and many Jewish groups
have gone out of their way to condemn.
What’s fascinating is that the New York
Times does continue to rely on Amnesty
International for information about human
rights violations in other countries, as long
as they aren’t Israel/Palestine.”] // Also see
James North, "
‘NY Times’ gives in to
widespread criticism, and mentions Amnesty
report on Israeli ‘apartheid’ 52 days late
For the past 52 days, senior New York Times
editors have been squirming. Finally, they had
to mention Amnesty International's report that
Israel practices “apartheid,” Mondoweiss,
March 24, 2022.

Noy, Orly. "No, Israel’s apartheid doesn’t
stop at the Green Line
. The fall of the
Bennett government illustrates that maintaining
Jewish supremacy overrides all other
considerations in Israeli politics,” +972,
June 27, 2022. [“… [W]e must first
recognize that between the river and
the sea is a single apartheid regime,
one that originated from, and continues
to be propped up by, the lie of a “Jewish
and democratic” state within the Green
Line. Within these borders, Israel has only
offered its Palestinian citizens bargaining
power over the degree of their oppression.”]

Ofir, Jonathan. "Former Mossad chief
says Israel is an ‘apartheid state.’
Mossad chief Tamir Pardo has joined the
chorus of Israeli officials who have
admitted, to varying degrees, that Israel
is practicing apartheid,” Mondoweiss,
September 7, 2023. ["The revelation is
old news, of course, as the reality of
apartheid is by now recognized within
the consensus of the international human
rights community. In fact, limiting the
apartheid designation to only the West
Bank is itself limited — since even
organizations like Israel’s B’Tselem
have belatedly framed apartheid as
existing “from the Jordan River to the
Mediterranean Sea.” What is new about
the AP article, however, is who is
admitting the reality of apartheid
— a heavyweight of the Israeli
security establishment.”]

Ofir, Jonathan. Israel can no longer shake off
the Apartheid label
,” Mondoweiss, February 5, 2020.
["Those who have made the comparison between
Israeli policy and Apartheid, have sometimes
regarded the Israeli case as worse: South African
law professor Prof. John Dugard, former special
rapporteur for the United Nations on the situation
of human rights in the Palestinian territories
…. Baleka Mbete, chair of the African National
Congress …. Israeli writer and journalist (Haaretz
contributor) Yitzhak Laor …. Professor
Noam Chomsky”]

Ofir, Jonathan. The meaning of Apartheid
for Israel
. Abolishing Israeli Apartheid means
abolishing Zionism and burying the idea of
Jewish supremacy, which stands at the core
of Zionism itself,” Mondoweiss, October 19,
2021. [
While Zionism doesn’t seem to be able
to escape its colonialist thrust, there is a way
out of Apartheid, and it’s so simple that it’s
often dismissed as naive. Offering equal rights
in a secular state without discrimination. That
short sentence is the antidote to Apartheid….
One day, after Israeli Apartheid is abolished,
many of these people will come and say how
they opposed it and how they didn’t like it. If
they really expect to end it now without BDS,
they are dreaming, and they are kidding
everyone including themselves. This really
is no time for jokes, it’s dead serious: Israel
is an Apartheid state.”]

Ofir, Jonathan. "More Zionists are
finally acknowledging Israeli apartheid,
but what comes next?
 Retired Israeli
general Amiram Levin and South African
journalist Benjamin Pogrund are the latest
to call out Israeli apartheid. Now the
question becomes, what are they willing
to do about it?,” Mondoweiss, August 14,
2023. ["Now that there is a consensus in
the human rights community that Israel is
an apartheid state many are starting to
acknowledge it, even some notable Israelis
and Israel apologists. But even as they
state the obvious, they are also trying to
contain the damage, and in the process,
obfuscate their personal responsibility
and attempt to limit the possible

Ofir, Jonathan. “Palestinian lawmaker
Rinawie Zoabi’s insistence on the right
of return exposes Israeli apartheid
Mondoweiss, June 12, 2022. [
This all
leads back to Israel’s cardinal problem:
Apartheid. Not Ghaida Rinawie Zoabi.
Not Mazen Ghanaim – Apartheid. 
is experiencing these government crises
because of its Apartheid. Is it any
coincidence that this drama happens
with the backdrop of the vote for the
blatant Apartheid law?...
That’s the truth
of what is happening, and Zionists are
outraged that Palestinians are being
difficult in supporting it. Apartheid is
the failure. Israel doesn’t have a “political
maturity” problem. It is an immature
Apartheid state that never rectified its
crimes against humanity, and it just
destroys so that the problem will go
away, like it destroyed Iqrit and Birim.
Israel is experimenting with a façade of
“democracy” to make this Apartheid
function with a semblance of law and
order. And every crack that appears
in that façade, pointed out by
Palestinians, has to be covered over
to keep up appearances.”]

Ofir, Jonathan. Zionism is apartheid,
and worse
,” Mondoweiss, August 7,
2017. [
Israeli historian Benny Morris
was alas right, when he concluded that
// “[T]ransfer was inevitable and inbuilt
in Zionism – because it sought to transform
a land which was ‘Arab’ into a Jewish state
and a Jewish state could not have arisen
without a major displacement of Arab
population”. // [JO:] "I believe every
Zionist knows this, even if they have
not meticulously scrutinized the history
of Zionism as Morris and many others
had done. They know it because their
logic tells them that they should not
reverse the results of this ethnic cleansing
(which occurred in various waves, mainly
1948, 1967, in between, thereafter and
currently), because it would endanger
the ‘Jewish and democratic’ state that
is a ‘must’ for them.”]

Palestine Liberation Organization. “The
First Anti-Apartheid Palestinian National
Conference Call Towards a Global Front
to Dismantle Israel’s Regime of
Settler-Colonialism and Apartheid
,” Press
Release, January 11, 2023. ["The rights of
the Palestinian people in accordance with
international law, particularly the UN Charter,
the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights, and the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights (especially the first common article
between them), as well as the relevant UN
resolutions, are indivisible and constitute
the cornerstone of our legitimate liberation

Palestine Liberation Organization: Negotiations Affairs
Department. “
It Is Apartheid: The Reality of Israel’s
Colonial Occupation of Palestine
,” June 8, 2021. [This
publication presents a full explanation of Israel
as an apartheid system. It defines continuing acts of
apartheid by the State of Israel in the land of Palestine
occupied since 1967 and how it maintains systematic
racial oppression and domination over the Palestinian
people as a whole to ensure that their continued
fragmentation into separated groups prevents
their collective right of self-determination and to
consolidate its illegal settler-colonial enterprise. It
highlights that the apartheid system is characterized
by a series of racist Israeli laws implemented since
1948 and continued by the Israeli occupying forces in
1967 and further defines penalties under international
law and human rights law provisions.”]

Palestinian BDS National Committee
(BNC). "
Colonialism and Apartheid.”
Israel’s human rights violations
aren’t accidental or the result of the
policy of this or that government.
Israel’s regime of occupation, settler
colonialism and apartheid is
deliberately designed to expel
Palestinians from their homeland
and to maintain a system that
privileges Jewish Israelis at the
expense of the indigenous
Palestinians. This regime
oppresses Palestinians and
violates their basic rights every
single day.”]

Palestinian BDS National Committee
(BNC). "Global mobilization launched
for UN investigation of Israeli apartheid
A letter signed by 452 civil society groups
worldwide launched a global campaign
calling on the UN to assume its responsibility
for investigating and eradicating Israeli
apartheid, as it did with apartheid in Southern
Africa,” BDSMovement.net, September 23,
2020. ["In a letter released yesterday, 452
civil society groups – unions, movements,
political parties and organizations – from
tens of countries around the world called on
the United Nations General Assembly and its
Member States, currently meeting in New York,
to investigate Israeli apartheid and to impose
targeted sanctions to stop Israeli apartheid
and illegal annexation of Palestinian land.”]

Palestinian NGOs Network (PNGO),
Palestinian Human Rights Organisations
Council (PHROC), Palestinian National
Institute for NGOs (PNIN). "Racism and
Institutionalised Discrimination in the
Roll-Out of the COVID-19 Vaccine
Al Haq, January 18, 2021.

Palestinian Return Center [PRC].
PRC Submits Written Statement to
UNHRC [United Nations Human Rights
Council] about Israel’s Apartheid
Regime in Occupied Palestine
February 23, 2022. [
PRC said it is
deeply concerned with the impunity
Israel is enjoying despite the countless
reports from globally reputable human
rights organizations condemning
apartheid practices. PRC called on the
international community to take the
necessary measures towards Israel,
in order to ensure a categorical end
to its cruel and callous apartheid
upon the Palestinian people.”]

Palumbo-Liu, David. Why it is
crucial to keep a spotlight on Israel’s
apartheid. Unlike his predecessors, Israel’s
new prime minister, Naftali Bennett, is
unabashedly embracing apartheid
,” Al
Jazeera, July 22, 2021. 

Paritzky, Yossi. Our apartheid state,”
YNet, July 24, 2007.

Patel, Yumna. “In ‘watershed’ moment,
B’Tselem labels Israel ‘apartheid regime.’

The reality is that there are millions of
Palestinians and Israelis living under the
control of a single regime, but with vastly
unequal rights,” Mondoweiss, January 13, 2021.

Patel, Yumna. “Israel says vaccine equally
available to all citizens. But is that really the
 Israeli authorities are failing to provide
essential information on the vaccine in Arabic,
to establish vaccine centers in Palestinian
neighborhoods in East Jerusalem, and to
provide sufficient vaccines in Bedouin clinics
in the Negev. These failures are “not a
coincidence”, rights groups say,” Mondoweiss,
January 14, 2021.

Peteet, Julie. "The Work of Comparison:
Israel/Palestine and Apartheid
,” Anthropological
Vol. 89, No. 1 (Winter 2016),
pp. 247-281. ["
The article positions this
comparison in anthropological tradition and
tracks its genealogy. It fleshes out various
elements of comparison in South Africa and
Israel, states and societies constructed around
the edifice of classification, distinction, and
privilege. Central to human cognition and
meaning-making, these classifications— Arab
and Jew and Black and white— affected
inequality and fueled a hierarchical social
order pivoting around the designation of
citizens and subjects, the configuration of
space, and the distribution of rights.”]

Physicians for Human Rights - Israel.
"This is How Israel Evades Its Responsibility
for Palestinians’ Health
New Report.
Immense disparities between Israel and
the Palestinians in confronting the
COVID-19 Crisis,” PHRI, August 26,
2021. ["This state of affairs
demonstrates a reality of apartheid,
whereby while two populations live
under a single sovereignty, one will
receive a high-quality vaccine early on,
whereas the other will receive fewer
vaccines, of another type and at a later
time. The very fact that two populations
living under the same regime are treated
in such disparate ways is unparalleled
confirmation of the existence of a reality
of apartheid in the West Bank”]

Plitnick, Mitchell. "Biden Must Face the
Facts: Israel Is an Apartheid Regime
. The
leading human rights organization B’Tselem
has now joined others in making that claim—one
that will be difficult for the Biden administration
to ignore or dismiss,” The Nation, January 21,
2021. ["Although it has been tendentiously
argued by some defenders of Israel that neither
Palestinians nor Israelis constitute a “racial
group,” the United Nations has defined racial
discrimination as “any distinction, exclusion,
restriction or preference based on race, colour,
descent, or national or ethnic origin which has
the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing
the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an
equal footing, of human rights and fundamental
freedoms in the political, economic, social,
cultural or any other field of public life.”]

Power, Dr. Susan. "The Legal Architecture
of Apartheid
,” Al-Haq, April 12, 2021.
["The following briefing paper examining
the Legal Architecture of Israel's Apartheid,
by Dr. Susan Power, Head of Legal Research
and Advocacy, Al-Haq was published by
, (Against Apartheid and Racial
Discrimination) on 2 April 2021.] [“Israel’s
legal architecture codifies a privileged
status for its Jewish citizens, and
discriminates against all its non-Jewish
persons, and particularly its Palestinian
citizens….This brief serves to outline the
key laws that established this regime and
enabled discriminatory policies and
practices to be applied to the Palestinian
people as a whole.”]

PSC-Cuny. "CUNY union condemns Israeli
Apartheid practices and calls for discussions
of BDS
. The CUNY staff congress that represents
30,000 members across the university system
passed a resolution calling out Israel as a
settler-colonial and apartheid state, and
committing to lead chapter discussions of
BDS in Fall 2021,” Mondoweiss, June 14, 2021.

Queers Against Israeli Apartheid. “Apartheid 101.”

Quigly, John. “Apartheid Outside Africa: The
Case of Israel
,” 2 Ind. International and
Comparative Law Review. 221, 1991-1992.
["Under the Apartheid Convention, Israel’s
discriminatory practices qualify as apartheid
policy. The discriminatory practices are not
isolated phenomena, but part of a whole
whose purpose is to keep the Palestinian
Arabs in a subordinate status. The Palestinian
Arabs became secondclass citizens of Israel.
Israel's self-definition as Jewish shows
the intent to make a state for Jews and
indicates that the various acts of
discrimination are carried out with the
purpose to maintain domination by
one racial group over another.”]
Download pdf here.

Rahman, Anjuman. "'Palestinians thinking
of liberation, should not only learn from South
Africa's past, but also its present
,’” Middle East
Monitor, February 8, 2021. ["I'm not entirely
convinced that our situation is any more different
or unique from what existed in South Africa during
apartheid," said Jarrar. "The Israeli government has
replicated, and in some ways, worsened the South
African version.” / "There is nothing complex about
the Palestinian situation," explained Jarrar. “Israel’s
rule over the Palestinian people, wherever they
reside, collectively amounts to a single regime of
apartheid. Palestinians living inside Israel can vote,
but cannot legally organise against the system of
Jewish supremacy. In East Jerusalem, Palestinians
have residency rights but not citizenship. Within
the West Bank, Palestinians live under military law
and have no citizenship. In the Gaza Strip,
Palestinians have no citizenship and they are
imprisoned in that tiny area.”]

Rahman, Omar. "Apartheid and the
Palestine Liberation Movement:
Opportunities and Challenges
Middle East Council on Global
Affairs, Analysis Paper, May 31,
2023. ["The characterization of
Israeli control over Palestinians
as an apartheid system represents
a significant shift in the way the
regime is portrayed and understood.
While the application of the term to
Israel has been around since the
1960s, traction has intensified over
the past two decades, partly due to
the emergence of an anti-apartheid
movement and increasing recognition
that Israel’s grip on Palestinian territory
is permanent. Legal experts, scholars,
human rights professionals, and
multilateral institutions have all
contributed to the growing body of
research and analysis supporting the
charge.  This paper examines the
implications of the adoption of the
apartheid framework for the Palestine
liberation movement today and in the
future, presenting new opportunities
and challenges in the struggle to free
Palestinians from Israeli subjugation
and enable them to exercise their
internationally recognized right to
national self-determination. The
paper traces the history of the
apartheid narrative as applied to
Palestine-Israel and how it has
evolved, examines the various
arguments for applying the
apartheid characterization to
Israel, and explores the
opportunities provided by the
growth of the apartheid narrative
for the Palestine liberation
movement. It also highlights
the challenges the framework
poses and those that lie ahead for
the development of a Palestinian
anti-apartheid movement.”]

Rapoport, Meron. "UN expert: ‘Apartheid is
in front of your eyes everywhere you go
Francesca Albanese discusses the recent
attacks against her, defining Israel’s
occupation as settler colonialism, and
using international law to dismantle it,”
+972, February 6, 2023.

Rapoport, Meron. "With annexation plan
looming, Israel grapples with reality of apartheid
For decades, Israel was able to skirt around
the issue of Palestinians’ rights under
occupation. But as Netanyahu gears up for
annexation, can these questions continue
to be swept under the rug?” Middle East
Eye, June 24, 2020. ["But why have
Netanyahu and his allies among the
settlers - with the acquiescence of the
Blue and White party of Benny Gantz,
with whom Netanyahu has formed a
coalition government - decided to give
up their policy of de facto annexation
for a de jure one? Many settlers feel
that the battle to prevent the
establishment of a Palestinian state
has been won in their favour, and that
it is therefore time to move to the
next stage.”]

Rettman, Andrew. “No EU cost for Israeli
'apartheid' in West Bank
,” EUobserver,
February 1, 2019. ["Alon Liel, a former
Israeli diplomat, said Israel was doing to
Palestinians what South Africa did to blacks
before its apartheid regime fell in 1991. /
"The West Bank legal regime is a form of
institutionalised racial segregation. A simpler
description would be apartheid," he told this
website. / "I was Israel's ambassador to South
Africa, so I have a basis to compare," Liel, who
held the post in Pretoria from 1992 to 1994,
and who later became director of Israel's foreign
ministry, said. / South Africa emancipated blacks
in part due to Western economic sanctions.”]

Reuters. Israel imposes 'apartheid regime’ on
Palestinians: U.N. report
,” March 15, 2017.

Reynolds, Nick. "Rashida Tlaib Calls Out
Israel ‘Apartheid’,”  Newsweek, April 7, 2023.

Robert, Stephen. Apartheid on Steroids,”
The Nation, August 12, 2011. [
While the
world’s statesmen have dithered, Israel has
created a system of apartheid on steroids, a
horrifying prison with concrete walls as high
as twenty-six feet, topped with body-ravaging
coils of razor wire….How can Jews, who have
been persecuted for centuries, tolerate this
inhumanity? Where is their moral compass?
How can this situation be acceptable to
Judaism’s spiritual and political leaders?”]

Rundle, Guy. This is apartheid, plain and
simple. Supporters of Israel hate the apartheid
comparison, but which other government does
it most resemble?” Crikey, May 17, 2018. [“Israel’s
supporters hate the apartheid government
comparison, but which other government does
it most resemble? What is this but Sharpeville
redux? The only difference? Apartheid South
Africa was surrounded by sanctions, which
ultimately persuaded business to pressure
the government to make a transition.”]

Russel Tribunal on Palestine. "Submission to
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial
Discrimination (CERD) in its review of Israel’s
14th  to 16th periodic reports to the committee
January 2012. ["The findings of the Russell Tribunal
on Palestine suggest multiple grounds to refute
the claim that no apartheid or segregation practices
exist under Israeli jurisdiction. The Tribunal made
findings in respect of Israel’s policies and practices
by reference to three core elements of the definition
of apartheid as drawn from its common elements
under the International Convention on the Elimination
of all forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), the
International Convention on the Suppression and
Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (the Apartheid
Convention) and the Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court: o the presence of two distinct racial
groups o the commission of acts defined as ‘inhuman
acts’ of apartheid o the institutionalised nature of
domination by one group over another….The existence
of ‘racial groups’ is fundamental to the question of
apartheid. The situation in Israel/Palestine is not
defined in terms of traditional conceptions of ‘race’
as it was in apartheid South Africa. On the basis of
expert evidence heard during the Cape Town session,
the Tribunal concluded that international law (including
as applied in ICERD) gives a broad meaning to the term
‘racial’ as including elements of ethnic and national
origin, and therefore that the definition of ‘racial group’
is a sociological rather than biological one. Perceptions
(including self-perceptions and external perceptions) of
Israeli Jewish identity and Palestinian identity illustrate
that Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs can readily be
defined as distinct racial groups for the purposes of the
prohibition of apartheid under international law. From
the evidence received, it was clear to the jury that two
distinct, identifiable groups exist ina very practical sense
and that the legal definition of ‘racial group’ applies to
all circumstances in which the Israeli authorities have
jurisdiction over Palestinians.”]

Sarid, Yossi. Yes, It Is Apartheid,” Haaretz,
April 24, 2008.

Said, Edward. “How Do You Spell
Apartheid? O-s-l-o
,” Haaretz,
October 11, 1998. ["To Israelis, Rabin and
Peres spoke openly about separation, not
as providing Palestinians with the right to
self-determination but as a way of
marginalizing and diminishing them
leaving the land basically to the more
powerful Israelis. Separation in this
perspective then becomes synonymous
with apartheid, not with liberation. To
declare a Palestinian state under such
circumstances is essential to accept the
idea of separation as apartheid, not
equality, and certainly not as
self-determination. “Self-rule” is
Netanyahu’s euphemism for it.”]

Said, Edward. The Question of Palestine,
Times Books, New York, New York,
January 2, 1979. 

Sayegh, Fayez. Zionist Colonialism in
,” Palestine Monographs, Research
Center, Palestine Liberation Organization,
Beirut, Lebanon, 1965. ["
For, whereas the
Afrikaner apostles of apartheid in South Africa,
for example, brazenly proclaim their sin,
the Zionist practitioners of apartheid in
Palestine beguilingly protest
their innocence!”]

Schocken, Amos. "Citizenship law makes
Israel an apartheid state
We do not have to
identify the characteristics of South African
apartheid in the civil rights discrimination
in Israel in order to call Israel an apartheid
state. It is best that we not try to evade the
truth: The Citizenship Law's existence turns
Israel into an apartheid state, Haaretz, June
27, 2008.

Segal, Raz. "Israeli Apartheid and Its
Apologists,” Contending Modernities:
Exploring how religious and secular
forces interact in the modern world

[University of Notre Dame Keough
School of Global Affairs], March 31,
2022. ["
In this post, Raz Segal uses
the recent confirmation hearing of
Dr. Deborah Lipstadt as a case study
in how critiques of Israel’s policies
are reframed by apologists of the
state as antisemitic attacks. Segal
argues that such conflations lead
not only to a false picture of the
reality on the ground, but also risk
reinforcing the segregationist
logic of antisemtism that the
apologists claim to combat. The
author suggests that an honest
reckoning with the reality of the
Israeli apartheid system and the
willingness to stand in solidarity
with its victims will result in
justice for all those who live in

Sfard, Michael. “Israelis Cry With Ukraine
but Ignore Their West Bank Apartheid
Haaretz, April 1, 2022. [“(R)ecognition of the
fact that Israel is committing the crime of
apartheid has been spreading faster than
omicron in recent months. And Israelis?
They’re hanging the Ukrainian flag on their
cars and balconies, muttering “Slava Ukraini”
and avoiding eye contact with the mirror.”]

Sfard, Michael. “Yes, It’s Israeli Apartheid.
Even Without Annexation
,” Haaretz, July 9,
2020. [
In recent months, I have studied the
issue in depth and, in a legal opinion I authored
for the Yesh Din rights group, I came to a
disheartening conclusion on this term’s relevancy
for describing the type of control wielded by Israel
in the West Bank. Yes, even without annexation….In
other words, apartheid is a regime that, using all
the tools at its disposal – law, policy, practice – creates
the superiority of one group and imposes inferiority
on another, usually manifested in institutional
discrimination regarding rights and resources.
Contrary to popular belief, in international law,
a racial group is defined in accordance with
sociopolitical classifications, not biological-genetic
ones, thus the definition encompasses national
or ethnic origin. It’s not enough to impose
inferiority on such a group; a condition for
committing the crime is that the superiority
is not temporary but meant to be permanent.’]

Shah, Samira. “On the Road to Apartheid: The
Bypass Road Network in the West Bank
Columbia Human Rights Law Review 29, no.
221, (New York: Sheridan, 1997-1998): 247-257.

Shahak, Israel. “Israeli apartheid and the
,” Race and Class 30, no. 1
(July 1988): 1-12. [Sage Publicaions /
Abridged and edited version of a talk
given at the Institute of Race Relations,
May, 1988.]

Shalabi, Malak. Call it what it is – ApartheidIsrael.
The groundbreaking Human Rights Watch
Report confirms what Palestinians have been
calling Israel for years: ApartheidIsrael,”
Mondoweiss, April 28, 2021.  [“Esteemed
Palestinian human rights attorney, professor,
and author Noura Erakat coined the term
“ApartheidIsrael”, “one word reflective of its
singular system of domination over all
Palestinian lives without regard to false
partitions and various judicial regimes.”]

Shapiro, Adam. “Pelosi's Delegation to
Israel Kept Its Eyes Closed to the Reality
of Apartheid
,” Democracy for the Arab
World Now, February 17, 2022.

Sharon Smith. “Israel’s apartheid at 60,”
Socialist Worker, May 22,2008.

Sharp, Heather. Families fight 'racist’ Israeli
citizenship law
,” BBC News, March 9, 2010.

Shlaim, Avi. "Settlements turned Israel into
apartheid state
. Historian tells London summit
Zionism went wrong by replacing universalism
with 'religious messianism,'
" Haaretz,
November 21, 2008.

Sibanyoni, Matiba. “Opinion: For Mandela’s
sake, progressive world must expel Israeli
envoys over apartheid against Palestine
SABC News, May 13, 2021. [
In my book,
Pretoria needs to summon the Israeli
ambassador to record SA’s objection to
the wanton oppression of the Palestinians
by Israel. In fact, Pretoria should send the
Israeli ambassador back to Tel Aviv in a
demonstration of clear, unadulterated
solidarity with the people of Palestine.
This is a kind of a lead SA government
need to take, and encourage the AU and
the progressive world to do likewise.”]

Siegman, Henry. Imposing Middle East Peace.
Forceful outside intervention is the only alternative
to an unstable and dangerous status quo,” The
Nation, January 7, 2010. [
Israel has crossed the
threshold from 
the only democracy in the Middle
East” to the only apartheid regime in the Western

Silverstein, Richard. “Israeli NGO: Israel Is an
Apartheid Regime
,” Jacobin Magazine, January
22, 2021. [
The report roundly rejects an
argument favored by bastions of liberal Zionism
like Haaretz, the Zionist Left Meretz, and J Street:
that Israel within the Green Line is a democracy,
while everything beyond it is an unjust usurpation
of Palestinian rights to statehood. This conception
views Israel and the Occupied Territories as two
separate entities — Israel good, occupation bad.
B’Tselem now rejects this duality. It also rejects
the claim that Israel is a democracy: because equal
rights are denied to Palestinian citizens based
on religion or ethnicity.”]

Sprusansky, Dale. Barghouti Discusses
Israeli Apartheid, BDS Campaign
,” Washington
Report on Middle East Affairs, May 2012, Pages
71-72. [
With regard to Israeli apartheid, Barghouti
noted that last November the Russell Tribunal on
Palestine concluded that 
Israel's rule over the
Palestinian people, wherever they reside,
collectively amounts to a single integrated
regime of apartheid….Comparing apartheid
in South Africa and Israel, Barghouti pointed
out that 93 percent of Israel's non-occupied
land is effectively for Jews only, while 86
percent of the land was off-limits to blacks
in South Africa.”]

St. John, Ronald Bruce. Apartheid By Any Other
,” CounterPunch, February 2, 2007.

Sherwood, Harriet. Palestinians draw parallels with
Mandela's anti-apartheid struggle
,” The Guardian
[UK], December 12, 2013.

Stop the Wall Campaign. “Democratic
South Africa’s Complicity in Israel’s
Occupation, Colonialism, and
,” 2010. 

Tatour, Lana. Why calling Israel an apartheid
state is not enough
. Report from B’Tselem
highlighting Israel's apartheid character is a
welcome development, but this finding cannot
be divorced from the state's oppressive
settler-colonialism,” Middle East Eye, January
18, 2021.

Telhami, Shibley. What do Americans think
of the BDS movement, aimed at Israel?

Brookings Institute, January 8, 2020.
A 2019 poll shows that the
US public stronglysupports the
#RightToBoycott, in contrast with
elected US representatives' efforts to
restrict that right and #BDS. 
According to
the poll, 72% oppose laws penalizing
people who boycott Israel."]

Thill, Magali. European Union
Obligations and Duty to End Israeli
Policies of Forced Transfer,
Colonialism and Apartheid in
Occupied East Jerusalem
European Coordination of
Committees and Associations
for Palestine and Fundacion
Mundubat,” 2014.

Thrall, Nathan. "The Separate Regimes
Delusion: Nathan Thrall on Israel’s
,” London Review of
Books, Vol 43 No 2, January 21, 2021.
[“...millions of Palestinians continue
to be deprived of basic civil
rights and subjected to military rule.
With the exception of those
six months in 1966-67, this has
been the reality for the majority of
Palestinians living under Israeli
control for the entire history
of the state. South Africa’s apartheid
lasted 46 years. Israel’s is at 72,
and counting.”]

Tilley, Virginia. “Is Israel an
Apartheid State? “Is Israel really
an apartheid state? YES
,” Unpetrified
Opinion Blog, February, 2011. [“Can
a State other than South Africa be
guilty of apartheid? YES. Informally,
any State that enforces laws that forcibly
divide people on grounds of race or
ethnicity in order to ensure the domination
of one over the other can be called an
apartheid state. But the term also has
a legal meaning under international
law that can serve as an impartial test.
As the world came to recognise the
evils of apartheid in South Africa, the
United Nations passed the Convention
for the Suppression and Punishment
of the Crime of Apartheid. This
Convention was intended to provide
a “universal instrument”: that is, to
apply to racist systems of rule
anywhere in the world.”]

Tinguely, E. E. The Apartheid Paradigm,”
Medium.com, August 26, 2019. [“Wintemute asserts
that the Israeli concept of hafrada, Hebrew for ‘separation’,
serves an almost exactly identical role as ‘apartheid’, and
rejects the assertion that there are no similarities
between the two systems as absurd. He further
argues that 
apartheid serves as a useful…
shorthand for the universally applicable human
rights violation that can be found at its core:
racial discrimination in access to citizenship
and the right to vote”, due to its wide
recognizability internationally. I find
Wintemute’s analysis to be well situated
in a broad academic context, drawing from
both sides of this “debate” as well as tracking
decades of international humanitarian law
and resolutions regarding Israel-Palestine.
Drawing as well from anti-discrimination law
rather than a purely humanitarian perspective,
Wintemute makes the point that regardless of
analogy, the treatment of Palestinians is clearly
and convincingly a policy of racial discrimination.
Were Israel beholden to European international law
such as the European Convention on Human
Rights, Wintemute concludes, 
there now exists
ample case law of the [European Courts of Human
Rights] that would allow Palestinians to seek
relief from Israel’s racial discrimination
against them”.]

Tutu, Desmond. Apartheid in the Holy Land,”
April 28, 2002.

United Nations. "Israel’s occupation of
Palestinian Territory is ‘apartheid’: UN
rights expert
,” United Nations News,
March 25, 2022. [“There is today in the
Palestinian territory occupied by Israel
since 1967 a deeply discriminatory dual
legal and political system, that privileges
the 700,000 Israeli Jewish settlers living
in the 300 illegal Israeli settlements in
East Jerusalem and the West Bank,” said
Michael Lynk, the UN Special Rapporteur
for the situation of human rights in the
Palestinian territory occupied since 1967.”]

University of Maryland, College of Behavioral
and Social Sciences. "New Survey Finds Mideast
Scholars View Israel/Palestine as ‘Akin to
,’” 2021. ["The most recent results
of the Middle East Scholar Barometer—a unique
survey of Middle East scholars including members
of the American Political Science Association
specializing on the Middle East, and members
of the Middle East Studies Association—
shows….The percentage of scholars who
describe the current Israel-Palestine situation
as “a one state reality akin to apartheid” increased
even more markedly, from 59 percent in February
to 65 percent in this most recent poll.”]

Velshi, Ali. "Israel's bombing of Gaza ignores
Palestinians' right to exist. We have to be
able to say that Israel's treatment of
Palestinians is apartheid. Period
,” MSNBC, May
17, 2021. ["After more than seven decades of
not just being deprived of land from which they
were evicted but being subject to this false
narrative that they live separate but equal lives
over which they have meaningful control, the
frustration of Palestinians with such unfairness
runs deep. It may be worth going deeper than
what you may hear inside your bubble and
understanding the depth to which the
Palestinian people are subject to apartheid
in their own land, deprived of basic
necessities and subject to relentless civil
rights violations. This is not a secret. It’s
out there for you to see. You just have to
be prepared to look for it.”]

Walt, Brian. As a Rabbi Raised in South Africa,
I Can’t Ignore Israel Is an Apartheid State
Truthout, February 17, 2021. ["I know what
apartheid is, and I was seeing it in front
of me.”]

War on Want. Israeli apartheid factsheet,”
August 31, 2021.

Weiss, Philip. Annexation turns Israel
lobby against Israeli gov’t (Peace Now
chair says ‘it’s been de facto apartheid
for a long time’)
,” Mondoweiss, June 15,
2020. [(Americans for Peace Now chairman
James Klutznick:) 
It’s occupation, and
whether or not anyone wants to say
apartheid, I just said it. It’s been de facto
apartheid for a long time and this could
end up being official.”]

Weiss, Philip. Big brave Charney
Bromberg says… it’s apartheid
Mondoweiss, May 4, 2010. 

Weiss, Philip. B’Tselem’s verdict is
in long tradition: Israeli apartheid
pronouncements ignored by MSM
Mondoweiss, February 16, 2021. [“The
New York Times and other US mainstream
media have ignored the report. Liberal
Zionist groups that have an ear in the
Democratic Party have avoided the topic
like the plague, because they know that
“apartheid” means one thing — BDS,
boycott, divestment, and sanctions — the
economic pressure that pro-Israel groups
call antisemitic. The cold shoulder for
B’Tselem is nothing new….I thought it
would be a service to list many of these
apartheid judgments, with the aim of
showing how long experts have been
reaching this conclusion–and how little
effect they have had, so far anyway.”]

Weiss, Philip. "By charging Israel
with ‘apartheid,’ former Israeli AG
joins list of those Greenblatt and Deutch
deem antisemitic
. The growing list of
those who say Israel practices “apartheid”
in occupied territories and west of the
Green Line is joined by Michael Benyair,
a former Israeli attorney general. But US
advocates maintain a taboo on that word
in the U.S. discourse,” Mondoweiss,
December 7, 2021.

Weiss, Philip. "Israel is not South
Africa! is liberal Zionist response
to HRW’s ‘apartheid’ charge
Mondoweiss, May 7, 2021.
["Rightwing Jewish organizations
are blasting the report as
antisemitic. But liberal Zionists
are issuing, We-need-to-look-at-this
statements that reject HRW’s
conclusion — “apartheid” — but do
say that HRW is “sounding the alarm”
about abuses in the occupation….HRW
has a Q-and-A that directly addresses
the question. Are you comparing Israel
to South Africa? No, HRW says: every
situation is different. [:]
 Over the years…
in international law, the international
community has detached the term
apartheid from its original South
African context and developed a
universal legal prohibition against
its practice. Irrespective of where it
is committed, apartheid is a crime
against humanity with a definition
set out in the 1973 International
Convention on the Suppression
and Punishment of the Crime of
Apartheid and the 1998 Rome Statute
of the International Criminal Court
(ICC), the latter drafted after the end
of apartheid in South Africa. Human
Rights Watch has concluded that Israeli
officials have committed the crime of
apartheid under the legal standards
set out in these instruments and not
on the basis of any comparison with
the situation in South Africa.

Weiss, Philip. "On Yom Kippur,
leading rabbi says she would not
hire rabbinical students who signed
letter critical of Israel
,” Mondoweiss,
September 20, 2021. ["On Yom Kippur
last week, Reform Rabbi Angela Buchdahl
declared from her New York pulpit that
she was “angry and embarrassed” by a
letter signed by 94 rabbinical students
during the Gaza fighting last May that
criticized Israel for “violent suppression
of human rights” and enabling “apartheid.”
And Buchdahl said, “I would not want to
hire anyone who signed that letter.” /
…. Her sermon functions as a kind of
blacklist. The experience of many
anti-Zionist rabbis is that they are
unhirable in synagogues unless they
hide their advocacy for racial equality
in Israel/Palestine.”]

Weiss, Philip. "Strong majority of foreign
policy experts say Israel/Palestine is ‘akin
to apartheid’
; 52 percent of Middle East
scholars say the two-state solution is no
longer possible. 59 percent say the current
reality is "akin to apartheid,” Mondoweiss,
February 23, 2021. ["The Washington Post
published the findings as a survey of “experts”
but managed to not mention the key
findings in the headline.”]

Weiss, Philip. "Slamming Amnesty’s
‘Israeli apartheid’ report as ‘attack on a
family member from outside,’ leading
rabbi locks out the Jewish future
. New
York Rabbi Elliot Cosgrove says his
congregants need to hear not just AIPAC
and ADL and J Street opposing the
Amnesty report on Israeli apartheid.
But from him too, "for Zion's sake,”
Mondoweiss, February 14, 2022. 

Weiss, Philip. Two former Israeli
ambassadors to South Africa join tsunami
of ‘apartheid’ accusations against Israel,”
Mondoweiss, June 8, 2021. [“This is yet
another apartheid charge leveled by serious
people in what Al Haq has said is the
“mounting recognition” and “mainstreaming
of the legal analysis of apartheid over the
Palestinian people as a whole.”]

Weiss, Philip. White House officials
know Israel is an apartheid state,
but they can’t say so
. Beltway scholar
Mark Lynch says even the White House
understands Israel practices apartheid,
even if it won't say so publicly, because
Palestinian intellectuals have led
the way in shifting the foreign
policy establishment,”
Mondoweiss, April 26, 2023.

White, Ben. UN report: Israel has
established an ‘apartheid
Report breaks new
ground on the UN’s examination
of the situation in occupied
Palestine by using the word
‘apartheid,’ Al Jazeera, March
18, 2017.

Winstanley, Asa. Israeli cities impose
beach apartheid on Palestinians
,” Electronic
Intifada, August 13, 2021. [“This is far from
the first time that Israeli authorities have
imposed “petty apartheid” on Palestinians.
In 2019 the Israeli mayor of the city of Afula
effectively banned Palestinians from a local
park, including even Palestinian citizens of
Israel….In 2013 a public Israeli swimming
pool refused entry to a group of children with
cancer just because they were Arab. And a year
earlier, Palestinians were turned away from an
Israeli-run Dead Sea beach resort, while Jewish
Israelis, European tourists and even dogs
were allowed to enter freely.”]

Winstanley, Asa. "It's time to admit that
Israel is an apartheid state
,” Middle East
Monitor, April 24, 2018. ["The UN document
points out that, although the word apartheid
is of Afrikaans origin, the wider practice is a
more general one of systemic racism which
applies to regimes beyond South Africa. For a
start, other white supremacist regimes in Africa
had extremely similar practices, such as Rhodesia,
as Zimbabwe was once called. / The definition of
apartheid under the convention makes it clear
that Israel's occupation regime in the West Bank
is an apartheid model.”]

Winstanley, Asa. "Why Israel is a settler-colony,”
Middle East Monitor, January 23, 2021. ["Those of
us using the term apartheid to describe Israel are
not claiming that the histories of South Africa and
Palestine are identical. That is not the point. There
are, however, many similarities. / As I've argued in
previous columns, the main point is simply that
Israel fits the definition of apartheid under
international law – which applies globally, and not
just in southern Africa. / The second claim is also
incorrect in my view. While Israel's unambiguous
military dictatorship as applied to the three million
Palestinians of the West Bank is not enforced on the
Palestinian citizens of Israel, nonetheless, the latter
are still subjected to an apartheid regime. / They are
at best second-class citizens. Although they have
voting rights (which Black people under South African
apartheid did not), under Israeli law they are very much
treated as inferior to Jewish Israeli citizens. / The so-called
"Nation-State Law" of 2018 was only the most brazen
manifestation of that reality. Palestinian human rights
group Adalah (Arabic for "justice") maintains a database
of the many Israeli laws which discriminate against the
state’s non-Jewish Arab citizens.”]

Wright, Jeff. “Another North American
church denomination sees apartheid
in Israel
In a Pastoral Letter leaders of
the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
write, “Israeli policies and practices that
discriminate against Palestinians—Christians
and Muslims alike—are consistent with the
international definition of the crime of
apartheid,” Mondoweiss, February 25,
2022. [
“The continuing occupation, denial
of rights, and injustice that Palestinians
endure is not consistent with our
understanding of God’s vision for justice
for all people, and therefore is sin,” the
letter reads. 
Titled Compelled to Witness,
the letter describes “an especially aggressive
period of violations of international law and
conventions vis-à-vis Palestinian rights.
Recent acceleration of actions and circumstances
has led to the deterioration of hope for a
just peace in Israel/Palestine.”]

Wright, Jeff. “'Apartheid-Free
Communities’ campaign seeks
to build movement to end support
for Israeli apartheid
. “Inspired by the
anti-Apartheid movement that toppled
the Apartheid regime in South Africa,
we are building an anti-apartheid
movement in North America,” says
the Apartheid-Free Communities
campaign,” Mondoweiss, June 6,
2023. [“We ask ourselves and our
communities to take a renewed
public pledge against all forms
of racism, bigotry, and oppression,
including against racist discrimination,
Islamophobia, antisemitism, and
xenophobia in our own
communities,” leaders of the
campaign write.”] 

Wright, Jeff. “Is Israel Practicing
Apartheid? American Churches Join
the Conversation
. A public debate is
growing about the State of Israel’s
more than fifty-year occupation of
Palestinian territory: American Christian
organizations are joining the conversation,”
University of Chicago Divinty School,
May 5, 2022.

Yesh Din [Volunteers for Human Rights].
The Occupation of the West Bank and
the Crime of Apartheid: Legal Opinion
July 9, 2020. ["
The conclusion of this
legal opinion is that the crime against
humanity of apartheid is being committed
in the West Bank. The perpetrators are
Israelis, and the victims are Palestinians
….Continued creeping legal annexation,
let alone official annexation of a particular
part of the West Bank through legislation
that would apply Israeli law and
administration there, is an amalgamation
of the regimes. This could mean
strengthening the argument, which
already is being heard, that the crime
of Apartheid is not committed only in the
West Bank. That the Israeli regime in its
entirety is an apartheid regime. That
Israel is an Apartheid state.”]

Zahalka, Jamal. 'New Laws Legalize
Apartheid in Israel.' Report from a
Palestine Center briefin
g,” For the
Record, No. 116, June 11, 2002

Zreik, Raef. Palestine, Apartheid,
and the Rights Discourse
,” Journal
of Palestine Studies, 34:1, 68-80,
December 21, 2020. [“Since the fall
of the apartheid regime in South Africa,
the oft-made analogy between the
South African and Israeli cases has
been extended to suggest the
applicability to the Palestinian quest
for justice through the rights discourse,
arguably the most effective mobilizing
tool in the anti-apartheid struggle.
This essay explores the suitability of the
rights approach by examining the South
Africa––Israel analogy itself and the
relevance of the anti-apartheid model
to the three main components of the
Palestinian situation: the refugees, the
Palestinians of the occupied territories,
and the Palestinian citizens of Israel. It
concludes that while the rights discourse
has many advantages, it cannot by its very
nature——the focus on law at the expense
of historical context——address the
complexity of the Palestinian problem.”]

Israeli Apartheid Week

Israel is an Apartheid State

"A protester carries a sign during a
demonstration by Palestinian, Israeli
and foreign protesters against the
newly-opened Route 4370, on January
23, 2019, in the occupied West Bank. -
The highway into Jerusalem divides
Israeli and Palestinian drivers into
separate lanes with a wall, leading
Palestinians to label it an “apartheid
road". Its western side serves
Palestinians, who cannot enter
Jerusalem, whereas the roads
eastern side serves settlers,
who can now reach northern
Jerusalem. (Photo by ABBAS
MOMANI / AFP) (Photo credit
should read ABBAS MOMANI/AFP
via Getty Images)"

klepfisz - Isr Apatheid

37133166 1118107458342590 3 med hr

Shulamit Aloni on Israeli Apartheid

Who Can Vote

[Also denied voting rights: Palestinian
refugees in the diaspora who wish to be
citizens, but unlike diaspora Jews,
are denied the right of return …]

Human Rights Watch [the most prominent
human rights organization in the world]:
A Threshold Crossed: Israeli Authorities
and the Crimes of Apartheid and Persecution
April 27, 2021. Also see HRW: “Abusive
Israeli Policies Constitute Crimes of
Apartheid, Persecution. Crimes Against
Humanity Should Trigger Action to End
Repression of Palestinians

Ahmed Kathrada, Veteran Anti-Aparthied
activist and former Robben Island
political prisoner

Discussion: Israeli Apartheid Week with Ali
Abunimah [2018]

Dr Tlaleng Mofokeng on Isr apartheid

Dr. Tlaleng Mofokeng, South African
physician, and the United Nations
Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health

Apartheid Road

Palestinian and Israeli activists
Photo: Oren Ziv/Activestills.org

"This duty is all the more compelling when we’re no
longer talking about temporary violations of international
law, fleeting war crimes or a military occupation like any
other. When the occupation becomes apartheid and defines
the identity of the state, international action is required – yes,
just as happened with South Africa. What worked there
could work here too.”
– Gideon Levy, "The Duty to End Israeli
," Haaretz,  January 21, 2021

Diana Buttu: “It’s Apartheid” [2020]

"Al-Haq Highlights Israel’s Apartheid
Regime and Calls for Accountability
at the 46th Session of the Human
Rights Council
” / April 12, 2021

Btselem- This is Apartheid

B’Tselem [the most prominent human
rights organization in Israel]: “A regime
of Jewish supremacy from the Jordan
River to the Mediterranean Sea: This
is apartheid
,” January 12, 2021.


"Renowned author, activist, and poet Susan Abulhawa
speaks to Inside Arabia’s Editor-in-Chief Wafa Hallam
about her work and the Israeli Apartheid implemented
in the occupied Palestinian territories and now denounced
by multiple respected human rights organizations like
Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, B’Tselem
and others." // “Palestinians have been saying that [Israel
is an apartheid state] for a long time, and so have South
Africans who lived under apartheid and went to Palestine
and most of whom, like Desmond Tutu, said it’s actually
worse than apartheid. And in many ways it is …. Amnesty
International, Human Rights Watch, and even B’Tselem
finally coming onboard, I mean of course these are
welcome developments. But it should be clear that these
organizations arrived at these stages, at these
conclusions, because of unrelenting Palestinian
struggle. Because our struggle made it unavoidable
for them to tell the truth. It’s because of Palestinian
reisistance. Because of our inability to accept this
oppression and humiliation. It’s because Palestinans
continue to fight in every way possible, as is Palestinian
right to do so. Because we continue to fight and struggle
against this cruel occupation. I think they could no
longer continue in the silence, ignoring. Because for
many years they did. What they described in these
reports is nothing new, right? It's stuff that has been
going on for literally decades. It has advanced over
the years, but there's nothing new. Israel maybe
introduced the nation state law, but otherwise
everything has consistently been the same….But the
realty is it’s always been this way. And we’ve always
been telling you, but nobody listens to Palestinians.
Nobody believes us.” [February 28, 2022]



"New poll: 25% of U.S. Jews think Israel
is apartheid state
. A quarter of Jewish
voters polled by the Jewish Electorate
Institute said they believed Israel is an
apartheid state. This number rises to
38% for voters under 40.” — Michael
Arria, Mondoweiss,  July 13, 2021.

It’s apartheid, say Israeli ambassadors
to South Africa

"How Israel is an apartheid regime, with Ali Abunimah”
[2/3/22] / "Mainstream human rights organization
Amnesty International has come out publicly and said
that "Israeli authorities must be held accountable for
committing the crime of apartheid against Palestinians,”
and that Israel's "cruel system of domination” amounts
to a "crime against humanity.” / Ben Norton discusses
this report with Ali Abunimah, journalist and editor of
the Electronic Intifada.

Why are we still silent

Noura Erakat Responds to Trump’s
Apartheid Plan

"A letter signed by 452 civil society groups worldwide                                                                                                   launched a global campaign calling on the UN to                                                                                                             assume its responsibility for investigating and                                                                                                               eradicating Israeli apartheid, as it did with apartheid                                                                                                             in Southern Africa"

Ilan Baruch and Alon Liel: "It’s apartheid, say Israeli
ambassadors to South Africa
. It is clearer than ever
that the occupation is not temporary, and there is
not the political will in the Israeli government to
bring about its end.” 

"Visualizing Palestine partnered with the Cairo Institute
for Human Rights Studies, Al-Haq, and Al Mezan Center
for Human Rights to visually summarize Israel's strategic
fragmentation of the Palestinian people into at least four
separate geographic and legal domains
. Strategic
fragmentation is Israel's principal tool to maintain
apartheid over the Palestinian people as a whole."

Noam Chomsky: “I’ve Never Called It ‘Apartheid’
Because It’s Worse Than Apartheid” [March, 2023]

Apartheid Road

Route 4370, dubbed the “apartheid road’
because its western side serves Palestinians,
who cannot enter Jerusalem, whereas the eastern
side serves settlers, who can, West Bank, 2019" /
Thomas Coex, AFP via Getty Images

"Ben White, Guardian journalist and author of ‘Israeli
Apartheid: A beginner's guide' comes to Goldsmiths
and speaks on the reasons why Israeli should be
classified as an apartheid state.”  [2013]

Identity Crisis: the Israeli ID System

"Aida Touma-Sliman, a Palestinian member
of the Knesset and long-time women’s rights
and political activist, describes apartheid in
Israel and the occupied territory and how
it impacts Palestinian citizens of Israel
in particular."

From “Together Against Apartheid"

Queers against israeli apartheid

Michael Lynk

Michael Lynk [Special Rapporteur on the situation of
human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied
since 1967]: "[An] institutionalized regime of
systematic racial oppression and discrimination
has been established,” Lynk told the HRC [Human
Rights Council]. “Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs
live their lives under a single regime which
differentiates its distribution of rights and benefits
[on] the basis of national and ethnic identity, and
which ensures the supremacy of one group over,
and to the detriment of, the other … This is apartheid.”

#Together AgainstApartheid

#TogetherAgainstApartheid Pledge

September 5, 2023

Beware of Natives

2oBZ7jedgp6dEveX89FtAL1bmj8xl jBdHGuuxYawpnak4N-Q3kyJdYDI34DTAWQ4249ooklNToxwHsZtNdx77JBl1apmRttcNH3QsP6yaZ3ybw0sMvse80IeciQKV6vn2W3QGOd

JVP letter to NYT

"In case you missed it, read JVP Executive Director
Stefanie Fox's letter to the editor that was printed
in the New York Times this weekend! She was
responding to a deeply flawed article on Zoom
and campus fights for Palestinian rights."

FaridEsack I

Diana Buttu: "Israel is NOT a Democracy! It’s
an Apartheid State” / Live with Diana Buttu
& Omar Baddar, streamed 25th January 2023.
["Diana Buttu is a lawyer and analyst based in
Haifa. Her commentaries have appeared in the
NYT, Washington Post, Boston Globe, CNN and
the Guardian among others…. Omar Baddar is
a Palestinian-American political analyst. He
previously served as communications director
for the Institute for Middle East Understanding,
deputy director of the Arab American Institute,
a co-host and producer with Al Jazeera, and
executive director of the American Arab
Anti-Discrimination Committee
of Massachusetts."

From "Together Against Apartheid"

“It Is Apartheid”: Rights Group B’Tselem on How
Israel Advances Jewish Supremacy Over Palestinians”/
Hagai El-Ad, executive director of the human rights
group B’Tselem, describes the findings of their report
that details how Israel is committing “apartheid.”
Israel’s treatment of Palestinians is “not complicated,”
El-Ad says. “Believe your eyes. Follow your conscience.
The reason that it looks like apartheid is simply
because it is apartheid.” We get response from Israeli
journalist Gideon Levy, columnist for the newspaper
Haaretz and a member of its editorial board, who
wrote a recent piece, “We Can Keep Lying to Ourselves
on 'Apartheid,' but Israel Has Crossed the Line.” We also
speak to Noura Erakat, Palestinian human rights
attorney and legal scholar."

Scottish Parliment Protest

Amnesty International. “Israel’s apartheid against
Palestinians: a cruel system of domination and a
crime against humanity
,” February 1, 2022. [“Our
report reveals the true extent of Israel’s apartheid
regime. Whether they live in Gaza, East  Jerusalem
and the rest of the West Bank, or Israel itself,
Palestinians are treated as an inferior racial group
and systematically deprived of their rights. We
found that Israel’s cruel policies of segregation,
dispossession and exclusion across all territories
under its control clearly amount to apartheid. The
international community has an obligation to act.”]
// AI has collected material dealing with Israeli
apartheid and the international campaign against
Israeli apartheid. View those resources here.

We're in an apartheid state

Sign on Highway 6 at the intersection of
Lebacca El Garbiya [2021]: “We're in an
apartheid state."

"Richard Falk, former UN Special Rapporteur on
Human Rights in the Occupied Territories professor
emeritus of international law at Princeton University,
speaking at Sydney University on July 5, 2019 on
Israeli apartheid. He was in conversation with
Fahad Ali at a forum on 'Israeli apartheid,” 

VP-DigitalConnectivity-Web-20180120-03 1

"These visuals explore Israel's control over the development
of the Palestinian telecom sector, and the inequality it creates
in digital access and connectivity. Palestinians in the occupied
territories are paying more for yesterday's technologies, while
nearby Israeli settlers in the same geographic area can access
cheaper and faster services. This "digital apartheid” harms
Palestinian workers and businesses that depend on good
connectivity. Meanwhile, tech companies like Google and
Amazon are equipping the Israeli military with the latest
and greatest technology, which they use to further
entrench this apartheid system.” — Visualizing Palestine

Zwelivelile Mandela, the grandson of
Nelson Mandela​, describes Israel​ as an
apartheid state

"Dozens of new Apartheid Free Zones declared around
the world. / From Mexico to France, from Brazil to
Canada and beyond, dozens of new spaces join the
#ApartheidFreeZones campaign in response to the
Palestinian call for mutual support and international
solidarity.” [6/11/21]

Apartheid Wall - ICJ

Columbus, Ohio —  June, 2021
/ The Guardian

Australias's ex Foreign Mnister

Australia’s ex-Foreign Minister

It's Time to Come Together Against Apartheid /
"Apartheid: it was a crime in South Africa, and it's a
crime in Israel. Today, people all over the world
are coming Together Against Apartheid to challenge
Israel’s domination over Palestinians. Find out
how you can take action to help end Israeli
apartheid at www.togetheragainstapartheid.org /
Video by Alessandra Hechanova” [Independent
Jewish Voices Canada, 2022]

Apartheid in their own words

In Soweto, South Africa

In Soweto, South Africa

Steve L: "August 19, 2022 / Brilliant letter from
my friend Duncan Booth in today's Methodist
Recorder, praising the recent Methodist Conference
for speaking out so strongly in favour of justice
for the Palestinian people. As a justice seeking
Church, this is what we are called to do! My
thanks go to the Methodist Conference as well!"

Amnesty International UK: "Israel's Apartheid
Against Palestinians - Explained"

"It's called apartheid" - Rep. Betty
McCollum on Israel [2018]

Walled World report

REPORT by Stop the Wall: “A Walled World,
Towards A Global Apartheid
” / Authors:
Ainhoa Ruiz Benedicto, Mark Akkerman
and Pere Brunet / Editors: Jordi Calvo
and Nick Buxton / November 18, 2020 /
"The report “A Walled World, towards a
Global Apartheid”, aims to analyze the
walls that have been built on the borders
from 1968 to 2018, as well as the different
reasons and more paradigmatic cases of
these policies of walled-in. The research
also investigates the main companies in
the military industrial and security complex,
as well as others in the construction sector,
which have benefited from these wall
construction policies. / Likewise, the report
studies the context in which these walls
are built and how they contribute to generate
more violence and social segregation
between communities and populations,
increasing the already existing global
inequality. In this way, the world is heading
towards reinforcing different policies that,
as some academics point out, contribute
to build a regime of Global Apartheid."


"Veteran South African activist Denis Goldberg:
Israel 'an apartheid state'"
/ "There is no doubt
in my mind that Israel is an apartheid state,
 Goldberg, who fought alongside late South
African President Nelson Mandela and other
activists against apartheid, told a gathering in
Johannesburg. "Having lived through apartheid
in South Africa, I cannot allow in my name the
same kind of oppression to go on," Goldberg said
at an event discussing lessons for the
Palestine-Israel conflict from those who
struggled against apartheid” Middle East
Monitor, "Veteran South African activist Denis
Goldberg: Israel 'an apartheid state,'"
July 28, 2015.

"Namibia knows a thing or two about Apartheid. For
decades, South Africa illegally occupied Namibia and
imposed its Apartheid policies upon the country.
Namibians finally won their independence from
Apartheid South Africa in 1990. Now, Namibia is
calling out Israel for the same discriminatory policies
that it used to suffer from. Earlier this month at the
United Nations Human Rights Council, the
Ambassador for Namibia criticized Israel’s
"practice of institutionalized discrimination
and apartheid against the Palestinian people.”
Going even further, Namibia called for the
restoration of the United Nations Special
Committee on Apartheid (which used to
coordinate international action against South
Africa), in order to implement the Apartheid
Convention to the Palestinian situation!"

Tweet: 12.28.2022

Israeli Apartheid and the Path to
– JVP Rabbinic Council [2/7/22]

["Israeli Apartheid and the Path to Teshuvah / An Open
Letter to the Jewish Community from the Jewish Voice
for Peace Rabbinic Council / We, the Rabbinic Council
of Jewish Voice for Peace, stand by the recent reports
which use the term ‘apartheid’ to describe Israeli rule
over Palestinians. The past year’s reports by B’tselem,
Human Rights Watch and now Amnesty International
contain well-documented evidence describing how the
State of Israel maintains a system of identity-based
domination over Palestinians. This detailed evidence
demonstrates the systemic and shocking human rights
violations and extreme violence and cruelty unleashed
upon Palestinians living both under Israeli military and
civil jurisdiction. / Rabbi Brian Walt, one of the signers
of this letter, grew up in South Africa under Apartheid.
He writes: “The finding that Israel is an Apartheid state
is shocking to me – and it should be to every Jew and
person of conscience.  Instead of demonizing these
human rights organizations, we who care about our
Jewish ethical and spiritual heritage must grapple with
the harsh and deadly reality documented in these three
reports.” / As people deeply committed to Jewish life
and culture, we believe Jews should read these reports
in the spirit of prophetic witness and atonement, like
the texts we read on Yom Kippur, which challenge us
to turn from violence and break the bonds of oppression
so a new dawn can burst forth. Many of us have witnessed
these realities on the ground for decades. The reports
confirm what Palestinians have been telling us all along:
Israel’s system of control is based on the idea of Jewish
supremacy. / It is with deep sorrow that we once again
witness leadership in Jewish institutional life ignore,
dismiss or condemn the reports as antisemitic. On the
day of the public release of Amnesty International’s
report, leaders of the Reform movement issued an
email calling on Reform rabbis and member
congregations to condemn the report, claiming
thedecades-long research was “replete with
discredited and inaccurate allegations, including
a deeply wrong accusation of apartheid.” / Denial
is a common response that surfaces when we are
asked to face difficult realities that upend deeply
held views. However, B’Tselem, Human Rights Watch
and Amnesty International detail at length how
Israel’s systemic policies, rooted in racism, have
brought suffering to millions of Palestinian lives.
Shouldn’t these claims cause us to at least read the
reports and hear the direct testimony of thousands
upon thousands of Palestinians? / We believe that
we must face the moral challenge that these reports
present to us. As Hillel said, “Go study!” We call on
all people of conscience, including Jewish people in
our communities, to read the reports carefully.
Secondly, we call on the leaders of the Jewish
community, rabbinic and lay, to facilitate open
discussion on the reports, including inviting
representatives of the organizations to talk about
the report in your community and to answer
questions.  We also encourage rabbis and leaders
to facilitate open and respectful dialogue and
debate in our communities about the issues
raised in these reports.  We cannot work for
healing justice if we live in denial of the reality
Palestinians have been facing every day since
1948. / As Jews of conscience, Israel’s system
of apartheid has created a moral emergency for
us. We cannot turn away. Instead, we long for
the kinds of conversation which accurately
reflect the reality on the ground, a reality that
B’Tselem calls Jewish Supremacy. The conclusion
reached by these three well-respected human
rights organizations that Israeli governance fits
within the international definition of apartheid
is a renewed calls to people of conscience. We
must examine how the claims of these reports
reveal the ways we are complicit in sustaining
Israeli apartheid, and commit to repair for the
systemic injustice choking Palestinian lives.
May our study lead to active repair of the harms
of apartheid. This is the only path to teshuvah.”]

South African Broadcast Corporation [SABC News]:
Amnesty Intl. Report finds Israel guilty of enforcing
'apartheid' on Palestinians: Saleh Hijazi (Amnesty
International's Deputy Regional Director of the Middle
East and North Africa region and head of Amnesty
International's Jerusalem office) [2/23/22]

Abunimah, Ali. "Infographic: How the
Israeli ID card system enforces apartheid
Electronic Intifada, May 15, 2014.

From “Together Against Apartheid"

HRW Israeli Apartheid

"A new poll by the University of Maryland shows
that 44% of Democrats believe Israel is a “state
with segregation similar to apartheid," and 41%
of Democrats support the BDS movement,”
Mondoweiss, April 25, 2023.

“Omar Badder: Decoding Israel/Palestine:
Apartheid” [2015] 

Israeli Apartheid / Let’s Talk it Over [one hour
broadcast] Season 1, Ep. 2 / "Music legends Brian
Eno and Roger Waters discuss the concept of
apartheid when it comes to Israel as well as the
attempts to criminalize the BDS movement both
in the UK and in the US. They also address the
recent declaration of the International Criminal
Court in regards to Israel/Palestine. With British
solicitor and founder of Lawyers for Palestinian
Human Rights Daniel Machover and Diala Shamas,
Staff attorney at the Center for Constitutional
Rights. Conversation hosted by Frank Barat.” /
Listen to the broadcast [2/1/2022] here.


"US Presbyterian Church’s General Assembly
recognizes on behalf of 1.7 million members
that “Israel’s laws, policies & practices regarding
the Palestinian peoplel fulfill inernational legal
definition of apartheid” in 28-3 vote.” [2022]

From “Together Against Apartheid"

MichaelLynk - Israeli Apartheid

“Israel has imposed upon Palestine an apartheid reality in a
post-apartheid world.” / The Special Rapporteur on human
rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territories [Michael LynkIn]
has submitted his report to the United Nations Human Rights
- a report which concludes that Israel is committing
apartheid against Palestinians. [3/22/2022]

Mandela Quote sign

London, 2022

Raphael Ahren in The Times of Israel,
March 2, 2014: "South African ruling
party endorses Israeli Apartheid Week
ANC says it’s ‘unapologetic’ in view
that ‘Palestinians are the victims and
the oppressed in the conflict’"

“A Threshold Crossed”: Israel Is Guilty of Apartheid,
Human Rights Watch Says for First Time. / "A major
new report by Human Rights Watch says for the first
time that Israel is committing crimes of apartheid
and persecution in the Occupied Palestinian
Territories. The international human rights group
says Israeli authorities dispossessed, confined and
forcibly separated Palestinians. “For years,
prominent voices have warned that apartheid
lurked just around the corner. But it’s very clear
that that threshold has been crossed,” says Omar
Shakir, Israel and Palestine director at Human Rights
Watch. “It’s time for the international community
to recognize the reality on the ground for what
it is— apartheid and persecution — and take the
steps necessary to end a situation of this
gravity.” [Democrcy Now, April 30, 2021]

Former South African MP Andrew
Feinstein: "Israel is a Racist, Apartheid
State. I should know, I grew up in one” [2020] 


"On February 20th, a unit of the Israeli Ministry
of Defense called Coordination of Government
Activities in the Territories (COGAT) published
an ordinance [proposal] revising its regulations
for foreign travel to the occupied West Bank.
Palestinian-rights advocates say the regulations
extend the reach of Israel’s already expansive
surveillance of Palestinians, requiring authorities
to extensively “pre-screen” diaspora Palestinians
as they try to visit their loved ones under occupation.
Should the rules take effect….The ordinance reaches
deep into the lives of the diaspora Palestinians visiting
their homeland. If a traveler begins a romance after
arriving, “the authorized COGAT official must be
informed in writing (at a special email address)
within 30 days of the relationship’s start.”

Limitations and Possibilities of the Apartheid
Framework with Lana Tatour / Rethinking
Palestine / "Lana Tatour and host Yara Hawari
discuss the limitations and possibilities of using
the apartheid analysis in the context of Palestine
whilst also stressing the importance of the
settler-colonial framework and decolonization
within the discussion on Palestinian liberation.”
Listen to the podcast here.

"In January 2017, at the United Nations, South Africa
slammed Israel as "the only state in the world that
can be called an apartheid state." 

From “Together Against Apartheid"

"Webinar with B'Tselem's executive director
Hagai El-Ad, and renowned Palestinian lawyer
and commentator Diana Buttu"

Africa for Palestine

Prof. Joseph Massad on 'Nation Law:
Israeli Apartheid State’ [2019]

"#Africa4Palestine​ webinar series: Ronnie Barkan,
a longtime Jewish Israeli activist and math teacher
joins the webinar series to talk about “Israeli
Apartheid From an Israeli Perspective."

Global South leaders call on UN to investigate
Israeli apartheid / "Hundreds of Global South
leaders are supporting demands for a UN investigation
of Israel’s apartheid, and for sanctions and ending
trade ties with Israel. Jessie Duarte (South Africa),
Claudia Mix (Chile), Elamaram Kareem (India) and
Nora Cortiñas (Argentina) send that message to
the United Nations General Assembly” [2020]

"Israeli Apartheid through South African Eyes
with Professor Farid Esack” [2020]

"Al-Shabaka analysts Yara Hawari and Diana
Buttu weigh in on the usefulness of the
Apartheid framework in the Palestinian
context.” [2018]

Queers Against Israeli Apartheid

From “Together Against Apartheid"

"How Israel is an apartheid regime, with Ali Abunimah” /
Mainstream human rights organization Amnesty
International has come out publicly and said that
"Israeli authorities must be held accountable for
committing the crime of apartheid against
Palestinians," and that Israel's "cruel system of
domination" amounts to a "crime against humanity.”
Benjamin Norton discusses this report with Ali
Abunimah, journalist and editor of the Electronic
Intifada. (This video was originally livestreamed on
February 3, 2022.)

"February 2022, Al-Haq launched its report titled
Cultural Apartheid, Israel’s Erasure of Palestinian
Heritage in Gaza
”. The report builds from an
investigation by the London-based research agency
Forensic Architecture using advanced technologies
and ‘open-source’ techniques to reconstruct one of
the most significant archaeological sites in the
occupied Gaza Strip. The report draws on Israel’s
strategic bombing of the Gaza coastline to exemplify
the erasure of Palestinian cultural heritage and the
denial of the relevant human rights. Israel’s
bombardments not only breach the principle of
military necessity in violation of the laws of armed
conflict, but also aim at gradually erasing Palestinian
cultural heritage to deny the Palestinian people of
their right to self-determination over their cultural
resources, and by extension threatens their existence
as a people. Such bombings are a gross violation of
the Rome Statute, constituting war crimes, and
crimes against humanity."

"Calling the Thing by its Proper Name: “Apartheid” Between
the Jordan River & the Mediterranean Sea” / Foundation for
Middle East Peace
: “With the occupation - and the separate-
and-unequal regimes it involves - now in its 54th year, and
with the 28 year-old peace process paradigm and its
two-state solution rendered obsolete by Israeli facts on the
ground (established expressly for that purpose), and with
the Nation-State law codifying discrimination against
Palestinians as a constitutional principle of the state of
Israel, the question has salience today, both with respect
to injecting honesty into the discussion around Israel-Palestine
and to injecting energy, focus, and urgency into the fight for
justice, human rights, freedom, and peace. To discuss this
question, FMEP is proud to host Hagai El-Ad, Executive
Director of Israel’s premier human rights organization
B’tselem, which recently published a ground-breaking
paper entitled, “A regime of Jewish supremacy from the
Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid;”
Sawsan Zaher, Deputy General Director of Adalah, the Legal
Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel and who was part
of Adalah's legal team presenting oral arguments before the
Israeli High Court of Justice in the petition against the
Nation-State Law; and Nathan Thrall, an author and
journalist who recently published an essay entitled, “The
Separate Regimes Delusion
.” / [2021]

Israel: Apartheid Not Democracy - A Talk by Ben White /
"Journalist and activist, Ben White, talks about Israeli apartheid
and segregation in this event hosted by Liverpool Friends of
Palestine on the 11th of December 2014"

Amnesty International: Apartheid is Fragmentation

Amnesty International: Apartheid is Dispossession

Amnesty International: Apartheid is Deprivation

Apartheid and BDS

5 former European foreign ministers - it is apartheid

Joint letter by five former European
foreign ministers [10/27/22] in
@LeMonde_EN: "We see no alternative
but to acknowledge that Israel’s policies
and practices against the Palestinians living
in the West Bank, East Jerusalem & Gaza
amount to the crime of apartheid.” // Full
without paywall is available at Council
for Arab-British Understanding.

AJ+: "Is Israel Guilty Of Apartheid Against
Palestinians?” / For many years, Palestinians
have accused Israel of practicing apartheid: An
official policy of treating the people under its
rule differently depending on their ethnicity.
Although it’s most famously associated with
the white supremacist regime that used to rule
South Africa, apartheid is actually a crime with
specific conditions. In this explainer, we look
at what those conditions are and whether they
truly apply to Israel or not.” / May 14, 2021.

Cover of The Nation [August 22/29, 2022]: "[T]he
choice is clear: continued apartheid or a land that
belongs to all its inhabitants.” 

Mr President this is apartheid

Mr President This is Apartheid


"Picnic video exposes both faces of Israeli
apartheid” / "Israel upholds a system of Jewish
supremacy over the land, and it doesn't matter
whether those challenging its apartheid rule are
Palestinian subjects without rights or “Arab”
citizens supposedly with full rights.” — Jonathan Cook

Rev. Eddie Makue: "Separate Is Never Equal:
Stories of Apartheid from South Africa to
Palestine” / Part 1 [2008] 

Rev. Eddie Makue: "Separate Is Never Equal:
Stories of Apartheid from South Africa to
Palestine” / Part 2 [2008] 

From “Together Against Apartheid"

Haggai Apartheid

Don't "Single out" South africa

"Israel Legislates Apartheid into Law” / “TRNN's
Shir Hever explains that Israel's new Law of the
Nation-State makes it impossible to pretend that
Israel is a democracy. Unequal rights are
recognized by the government as the essence
of the state” [2018]

191092812 2045485902258928 5053323968057898606 n

"Co-produced by the Palestine Solidarity
Campaign and Makan, this video explores
the apartheid reality faced by Palestinians
on the ground in the West Bank, the Gaza
Strip, in Israel and in exile.” [2021]

Why an Israeli Human-Rights Organization
Decided to Call Israel an Apartheid Regime
By Masha Gessen / The New Yorker /
January 27, 2021

Present Absentees Keynote: Prof.  Joseph
Massad [Middle East Monitor / April 29,
2019 /  33:03]

IMEU: survey data 2022

From “Together Against Apartheid"


View a larger version of the image here [on Visualizing
Palestine]. "Cars with Palestinian license plates are not
allowed on Israeli roads, regardless of the identification
held by the driver. Even on Palestinian roads, cars with
Palestinian plates have restricted access, face endless
delays at checkpoints and are subject to regular road
blocks. Cars with Israeli plates experience none of these
difficulties. The infographic ‘Segregated Roads’ invites
the viewer to imagine a road system in which the color
of your license plate determines your mobility."

Introduction to: Race, the Floating Signifier,
Featuring Stuart Hall [5:05]

[Full lecture] Stuart Hall: Race, the
Floating Signifier (1997; 1:11:59)

From “Together Against Apartheid

judicial-apartheid-2 med hr
Judicial Apartheid 3

Apartheid Tel Aviv

Apartheid Free Communities Initiative
Launch / "On June 6th 2023, the 56th
anniversary of the Israeli occupation of the
West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip,
dozens of faith communities and organizations
publicly pledged to become apartheid-free,
opposing all forms of racism and working to
cut all ties to Israeli apartheid.” [1:01:34]


Ali Abunimah: Palestine Needs Global Solidarity
To Overcome Its Apartheid [September 28, 2018]

They All Agree

Human Rights Watch: Israel Committing
Crimes of Apartheid and Persecution [May
19, 2021]

Let’s Talk It over: "Israeli Apartheid.” Music legends Brian Eno
and Roger Waters discuss the concept of apartheid when it
comes to Israel as well as the attempts to criminalize the BDS
movement both in the UK and in the US. They also address the
recent declaration of the International Criminal Court in regards
to Israel/Palestine. With British solicitor and founder of
Lawyers for Palestinian Human Rights Daniel Machover
and Diala Shamas, Staff attorney at the Center for
Constitutional Rights. Conversation hosted by Frank
Barat.” [March 15, 2021]

"Israeli Apartheid Introduction" - Susan Abulhawa.
Also see "Introduction to Israeli Apartheid,” by
Susan Abulhawa, in Washington Report on Middle
East Affairs [WRMEA], June-July 2021.

From “Together Against Apartheid"

Katie Halper: "The Video That Got Me Fired:
Israel IS An Apartheid State” [12:11].
"Here's the video that got be censored, fired,
and canceled by Next Star media, which owns
The Hill and Rising, a show I've been a weekly
contributor to for three years. Thanks to
Breakthrough News for making this video
with me and actually being an independent
and uncensored media outlet."
[September, 2022]

Visualizing Palestine: Academia Serving Apartheid


Independent Jewish Voices: "3 ads denouncing Israeli
apartheid hit the streets of St. John's, NL today! The
ads are sponsored by our friends at Solidarity With
Palestine St. John's & direct people towards IJV’s
#TogetherAgainstApartheid campaign site,
http://togetheragainstapartheid.org. #stjohns
#YYT #Newfoundland"

Latuff re Naftali Bennett at UN

Carlos Latuff: Naftali Bennett tells the U.N.
Israel is a "beacon of light." Just ignore
the apartheid.

“Israelis Against Apartheid” / a public call to
the international community / 

We, Jewish Israelis, oppose the actions of the Israeli
government and call upon the international community
to immediately intervene in defence of the Palestinians
in Gaza, the West Bank, Jerusalem, the Galilee, the
Negev, al-Lydd, Yafa, Ramleh, Haifa and throughout
historic Palestine.

We believe that Zionism is an unethical principle
of governance that inherently leads to a racist
Apartheid regime that has been committing war
crimes and denying basic human rights from
Palestinians for over seven decades. Such crimes
and violations include; the destruction of hundreds
of towns and villages and depopulating them of
750,000 Palestinians in 1948, alongside the active
prevention of return of refugees; the systematic
expropriation of Palestinians’ lands and
transferring them to Jewish ownership under
the auspices of the State; the occupation of the
West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
and the application of a colonizing military regime,
ruling over millions of Palestinians; the gradual
annexation of the West Bank by violently engineering
demographics; the ongoing siege on the Gaza strip
and persistent massacres in the Gazan ghetto by the
Israeli Air Force; political persecution of Palestinians
throughout Palestine and the ongoing incitement
against the political leadership and society at large;
All of these atrocities take place due to the impunity
Israel receives from the international community
and especially the United States.

In recent weeks, the Israeli government has
up-scaled its attempts to seize Palestinian
homes in East Jerusalem (especially in the Sheikh
Jarrah neighbourhood) and house Jewish settlers
in them with the aim of completing the Judaization
of the city that began in 1967. During the month
of Ramadan, Israeli forces intensified their violent
onslaught on the Al Aqsa Mosque compound while
giving settlers the green light to vandalize and
physically harm Palestinians in the West Bank,
Jerusalem and throughout the ’48 territories.

Mobs of settlers are acting under the auspices,
and in coordination with the Israeli police. Israeli
media is taking part in the unhinged incitement
gainst Arab citizens of Israel. As a result, the Jewish
mobs receive impunity for their violence, while
hundreds of Palestinian citizens of Israel are
arrested for protecting their homes
and communities.

As we write this statement, Israel is committing
yet another massacre in the Gaza ghetto.
During the past week, Israel has declined
third-party offers to negotiate a cease-fire
agreement with Hamas officials, and has continued
to bomb neighbourhoods in Gaza. The inhumane
siege on approximately two million people continues.

As individuals who belong to the the side of the
oppressor, and that have tried for years to shift
public opinion in Israel in order to change the
foundations of the current regime, we have long
come to the conclusion that it is impossible to
change the Jewish supremacist regime without
external intervention.

We call upon the international community to;
adopt the demands of the Palestinian Boycott,
Divestement and Sanctions movement; to work
towards the actualization of the Palestinian Right
of Return and to bring about historic justice; to
reach a just and democratic solution for all,
based on the decolonization of the region and
founding a state of all its citizens.” [5/20/21]

Harvard Divinty School Webinar: “What’s
New About the New B’Tselem Report: A
Moment of Moral Clarity” [February 23,
2021]. "This event ... featured Sam Bahour,
Diana Buttu, Hagai El-Ad, and Orly Noy.
Moderated by RCPI Affiliate Duncan Kennedy,
Emeritus Professor of General Jurisprudence at
Harvard Law School. Sam Bahour is a
Palestinian-American based in Al-Bireh/Ramallah,
Palestine. He is a freelance business consultant
who serves in various capacities in several community
organizations. Diana Buttu is a Palestinian-Canadian
lawyer specializing in negotiations, international law,
and international human rights law. Hagai El-Ad is an
Israeli human rights activist and the executive director
of B'Tselem, the Israeli Information Center for Human
Rights in the Occupied Territories. Orly Noy is a
political activist, and a translator of Farsi poetry
and prose. She is a member of B’Tselem’s executive
board and an activist with the Balad political party."

Shawan Jaberin, General Director, Al Haq: speech
to conference hosted by the International Centre
of Justice for Palestinians [May 31, 2022] / The title
of the conference: "Responding To Apartheid in Israel
and the Occupied Palestinian Territories; the UK’s
Obligations under International Law." 

From "Together Against Apartheid"

"Listen to the powerful statement by South
Africa’s foreign minister Naledi Pandor
discussing further measures against the
“well-documented #apartheid practices of Israel.”
// “[O]ur history of struggle against racism
& #colonialism make us duty-bound to be a
voice for the oppressed…” [February 14, 2022]

From "Calling Israeli Apartheid What It Is"

Connections, Episode 3: Apartheid Israel with Norman
Finkelstein // A conversation with Norman Finkelstein
hosted by Jadaliyya co-editor Mouin Rabbani about
Israeli apartheid. This episode of Connections Podcast
features a discussion of the recent Human Rights Watch
Report A Threshold Crossed: Israeli Authorities and the
Crimes of Apartheid and Persecution, its political
context, and potential implications. [May 17, 2021]

Israel's crimes of apartheid and persecution in
the oPt | Euro-Med Monitor Zoom Webinar //
Richard Falk [professor emeritus of international
law at Princeton University, and Euro-Mediterranean
Human Rights Monitor's Chairman of the Board
of Trustees], Margrete Auken [Danish member
of the European Parliament since 2004], Omar
Shakir [Israel and Palestine Director at Human
Rights Watch], and Ahmed Naouq [active with
We are Not Numbers] discussed Israel's Crimes
of Apartheid and Persecution through a
Euro-Med Monitor webinar [5/25/21].

"Human rights organizations from Israel
condemn vicious attacks on Amnesty
International,”  February 3, 2022

South Africans call out Israel’s 'apartheid against
Palestinians’ [TRT, 5/12/21]

 "Limitations and Possibilities of the Apartheid
Framework with Lana Tatour
" / Rethinking
Palestine / "Lana Tatour and host Yara Hawari
discuss the limitations and possibilities of using
the apartheid analysis in the context of Palestine
whilst also stressing the importance of the
settler-colonial framework and decolonization
within the discussion on Palestinian
liberation.” / Podcast: 27 minutes.

Apartheid isnt kosher

Separate Hospital Rooms request

Benyair Apartheid Israel

"Former Attorney General of Israel: With great
sadness I conclude that my country is now an
apartheid regime // Michael Benyair, former
Attorney General of Israel, agrees with Amnesty
." // "...my country has sunk to such
political and moral depths that it is now an
apartheid regime. It is time for the international
community to recognise this reality as well.”

"Mehdi's Take On Amnesty Int'l's Report
On Israel Apartheid”

"This is Apartheid: Caabu & PSC [Palestine
Solidarity Campaign] briefing on the
realities for Palestinians living under occupation,”
March 22, 2021. / "Israel's largest human rights
group, B'Tselem, recently published a report: ‘A
regime of Jewish supremacy from the Jordan River
to the Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid’.
Palestinians have been pointing out the apartheid
reality they live in for years, but B’Tselem's
declaration remains hugely significant.” /
With renowned Palestinian lawyer Diana
Buttu of Al-Shabaka and Hagai El Ad
of B’Tselem.

Together Against Apartheid Pledge [IJV]: "We will use this
pledge to demonstrate to world leaders that a growing
number of people recognize the injustice of Israel’s
policies and are standing together against apartheid,
and that we expect them to do the same. Sign your
name by filling out the form" here.

Catalonia 1
Catalonia 2

June 16, 2022

202210 not a vibrant democracy this is apartheid top eng

B’Tselem Report [October, 2022]: “Not a
"vibrant democracy". This is apartheid.” /
View a summary of the report and download
a pdf of the full report here

"Another Christian church condemns ‘apartheid
in the Holy Land
” [6/17/22]

B’Tselem [July 24, 2022]: "Under Israel's apartheid
regime Palestinians are not even guaranteed the
right to mourn” / "On 13 May 2022, Shireen Abu
Akleh, an Al Jazeera journalist who was killed two
days earlier in Jenin Refugee Camp, was laid to
rest in East Jerusalem. During the funeral, Israel
Police and Border Police officers beat the
pallbearers and other attendees. Footage of this
violence was shared around the world, drawing
harsh reactions and strong criticism. Official Israel,
however, remained unphased. According to media
reports, an investigation ordered by the Israel Police
commissioner was launched with a promise of no
prosecutions and no disciplinary action against any
of the persons involved.  Since then, B’Tselem has
documented three more funerals of Palestinians in
which soldiers and police officers assaulted attendees,
preventing them from bringing the deceased to burial
on their own terms and holding a respectful burial
ceremony….The Israeli violence during the four
funerals is not an aberration, and B’Tselem has
documented similar cases in the past. These
incidents represent one aspect of the apartheid
regime’s official policy toward grieving
Palestinians. Another, for example, is holding
on to the bodies of Palestinians with the Supreme
Court’s approval. Currently, Israel is holding 103
bodies of Palestinians, including nine minors, and
is preventing their families from parting with their
loved ones and bringing them to burial. Another
example is the standard practice of denying permits
to enter Israel from individuals whose relatives have
been killed by soldiers or police officers.  To justify
this conduct, Israel says it holds Palestinian bodies
as it needs them for bargaining chips in future
negotiations, and that denying the permits is
necessary due to fear of revenge. But these are
no more than a feeble cover for a cruel policy of
collective punishment, which causes immense
harm to families that have just lost their loved
ones. These claims reveal yet another aspect of
the apartheid regime: defenseless in death as they
are in life, Palestinians are not even guaranteed
the right to mourn."

On the Nose

"The Meaning of Apartheid” / A Jewish Currents podcast /
"In the last two years, Human Rights Watch and Amnesty
have begun using the word “apartheid” to
escribe Israeli rule over Palestinians, marking a significant
shift within the human rights establishment. But Palestinian
intellectuals have been critiquing Israeli apartheid for
decades—albeit in a different fashion. As scholars of
international law Noura Erakat and John Reynolds wrote
in an essay published in the summer issue of Jewish
Currents, a rich archive of Palestinian writing from the
1960s and ’70s frames apartheid as “an inevitable
outcome of Israeli settler colonialism,” and a key “vehicle
for its continuance.” Erakat and Reynolds argue that if
we understand apartheid as a tool of settler colonialism,
it appears to “require the same remedies as other
manifestations of colonial rule and foreign occupation:
collective liberation and land restitution.” By contrast, the
human rights organizations have advanced a more
legalistic understanding of apartheid, and suggested
accordingly that the solution is to institute formal legal
equality in Israel/Palestine—in other words, to extend
equal rights to all who live in the land. Alex Kane
discusses this and more with Erakat, Reynolds, and
Omar Shakir, the Israel and Palestine Director at
Human Rights Watch.” / Listen to the podcast
[12/8/22], and read a transcript of the podcast here.

AI - Dismantle Israeli Apartheid

The Crime of Apartheid

Separating Jews and Palestinians

Intent to Dominate

Systematic Oppression

Inhumane Acts

"Watch these short videos: 1. "Inside Israeli Apartheid
2. "Amnesty International Report finds Israel
guilty of enforcing 'apartheid' on Palestinians

https://tinyurl.com/VFHL-AmnestyReport //
Q&A discussion with panelists: Saleh Hijazi:
 Former Deputy Regional Direct - MENA at
Amnesty International  // Michael Lynk:
Author, Associate Professor of Law at Western
University, former UNHCR Special Rapporteur
for Palestinian territories // Edwin Arrison:
Anglican Priest, Development Officer - Desmond
& Leah Tutu Legacy Foundation // Jonathan
Kuttab (moderator):  Attorney, author, Exec.
Dir. Friends of Sabeel North America"

Activestills - Israeli Apartheid - Oren Ziv

Apartheid wont disappear on its own