11. Israeli Apartheid

Israeli Apartheid A VP

Israeli Apartheid B VP

Israeli Apartheid 1 VP

Israeli Apartheid 2 VP

Israeli Apartheid 3 VP

Israeli Apartheid 4 VP

Israeli Apartheid 5 VP



Website for "It is Apartheid” 

Website for “Israeli Apartheid Week

Website for “Coalition Against Israeli Apartheid"


Apartheid in Palestine

Ageel, Ghana, editor. Apartheid
in Palestine: Hard Laws and
Harder Experiences
, University
of Alberta Press, 2016.

Zionist Israel and Aparthied South Africa

Badran, Amneh. Zionist Israel
and Apartheid South Africa
Civil society and peace building
in ethnic-national states,
Routledge, 2013.

Peace or Apartheid

Bishara, Marwan.
Palestine/Israel: Peace or
Apartheid: Prospects for
Resolving the Conflict
, Zed
Books, 2001 

Carey, Chomsky - The New Intifada

Carey, Roane, ed., Noam Chomsky,
Introduction, The New Intifada:
Resisting Israel’s Apartheid
Verso, 2001. [Contributors: Ali
Abunimah, Ghassan Andoni, Omar
Barghouti, Nidal Barham, Azmi Bishara,
Noam Chomsky, Robert Fisk,
Muna Hamzeh, Hussein Ibish, Jan
de Jong, Jennifer Loewenstein, Nancy
Murray, Allegra Pacheco, Mouin
Rabbani, Glenn Robinson, Sara
Roy, Edward Said, Salman Abu Sitta,
Gita Svirsky, Ahdaf Soueif.]

Palestine - Peace Not Apartheid

Carter, Jimmy. Palestine: Peace Not
, Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Neoliberal Apartheid

Clarno, Andy. Neoliberal
and South Africa after 1994
University of Chicago
Press, 2017.

Uri Davis - Apartheid Within

Davis, Uri. Apartheid Israel:
Possibilities for the Struggle
, Zed Books, 2003.

Front Cover

Davis, Uri. Israel, an Apartheid
, Zed Books, 1987.

Dawson, Ashley and Bill V.
Mullen, eds., Against Apartheid:
The Case for Boycotting Israeli
, Haymarket
Books, 2015.

Dugard - Confronting Apartheid

Dugard, John. Confronting
Apartheid: A personal history
of South Africa, Namibia and
, Jacana Media, 2019.

Engler - Building Apartheid

Engler, Yves. Canada and Israel:
Building Apartheid
, Red
Publishing / Fernwood Publishing,

Apartheid Israel

Jacobs, Sean and Jon Soske
Apartheid Israel:
The Politics of an Analogy
Haymarket Books, 2015.

Do It Yourself Apartheid

Palestinian Grassroots
Anti-Apartheid Wall
Campaign, Do - It - Yourself
Apartheid in Palestine | Israel
The World Bank and ‘Sustainable
Development' of the Palestinian
Ghettos (Italian), Stop the Wall, 2005.

Israel and South Africa - The Many Faces of Apartheid

Pappé, Iilan, editor. Israel and
South Africa: 
The Many Faces
of Apartheid
, Zed Books, 2015.

The Unspoken Alliance

The Unspoken
Alliance: Israel's Secret
Relationship with Apartheid
South Africa
, Pantheon, 2010.
Weaved into the author’s
fascinating narrative lies the
disturbing debate about the
degree of moral end political
congruence that might have
existed between the two allies,
Israel’s political and defense
establishment on the one hand
and the Afrikaner ‘master race’
on the other.” —Shlomo
Ben-Ami, Foreign Minister
of Israel, 2000-2001]

Ruebner - Israel - Democracy or Apartheid State

Rueben, Josh. Israel:
Democracy or Apartheid State?
Olive Brance Press, 2017.

Apartheid is a Crime

Svensson, Mats, Ramzy
Baroud, Introduction. Apartheid
is a Crime (2nd Edition): Portraits
of the Israeli Occupation
of Palestine
, Cune Press, 2020.

Svensson - Crimes, Victims and Witnesses

Svensson, Matts. Crimes,
Victims and Witnesses: Apartheid
in Palestine
, Real African
Publishers, 2013.

Tilley, Virginia, ed. Beyond
Occupation: Apartheid, Colonialism
and International Law in the
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Pluto Press, 2012.

Cracks in the Wall

White, Ben. Cracks in the Wall:
Beyond Apartheid in Palestine/Israel
Pluto Press, 2018.

Ben White Israeli Apartheid

White, Ben. Israeli Apartheid:
A Beginner's Guide
, Second
Edition, Pluto Press, 2014.

Documents and Articles

Adalah [The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel].
The Discriminatory Laws Database, September 25, 2017.

Human Sciences Research Council. “Occupation,
Colonialism, Apartheid? A re-assessment of Israel’s
practices in the occupied Palestinian territories under
international law
,” Capetown, South Africa, May, 2009.
["The analysis of apartheid in this study encompasses
three distinct issues: (1) the definition of apartheid;
(2) the status of the prohibition of apartheid
in international law; and (3) whether Israel’s practices
in the OPT amount to a breach of that prohibition….
Israel appears clearly to be implementing and sustaining
policies intended to maintain its domination over
Palestinians in the OPT and to suppress opposition
of any form to those policies…. this study finds that
the State of Israel exercises control in the OPT with
the purpose of maintaining a system of domination
by Jews over Palestinians and that this system
constitutes a breach of the prohibition of apartheid.”] 

International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the
Crime of Apartheid
, G.A. res. 3068 (XXVIII)), 28 U.N. GAOR Supp.
(No. 30) at 75, U.N. Doc. A/9030 (1974), 1015 U.N.T.S. 243, entered
into force July 18, 1976

International Criminal Court. Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court
, done at Rome on 17 July 1998, in force on 1 Jul
 2002, United Nations, Treaty Series,  vol.  2187,  No.  38544, 
Depositary:  Secretary-General  of  the  United  Nations,

Abdelnour, Samer. "Understanding Israeli Apartheid,”
[presentation August 14, 2014, at The Palestine
Washington, DC] 

Abunimah, Ali. "It’s apartheid “clear and simple,”
Pink Floyd’s Roger Waters tells his Israeli fans
Electronic Intifada, October 11, 2013. ["But the
fact is that there are different rules of law for
Arabs and Jews. Completely different. In the
occupied territories, Jews are governed under
a civil law and have completely different rules
in terms of their movement and so on and so
forth … and the occupied people, the
Palestinians and the Arabs, are under martial
law. And it’s a completely different set of laws.
They also have completely different sets of
documents. / It’s just like the old pass laws in
South Africa. It is apartheid. Clear and simple.
If you go and look at the definition of what the
crime of apartheid is, then it describes perfectly
what’s going on in the West Bank. And not quite
so perfectly, but also, Gaza, which is under siege,
it’s completely surrounded. They have no freedom.
When one race or ethnic group subjugates
another race or ethnic group, to its power and
control, that is the crime of apartheid.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "Landmark UN report backs Israel
,” March 15, 2017. ["Published by the UN’s
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA), the report concludes that “Israel has
established an apartheid regime that dominates
the Palestinian people as a whole.” / 
It finds “beyond
a reasonable doubt that Israel is guilty of policies
and practices that constitute the crimes of apartheid”
as defined in international law. It urges national
governments to “support boycott, divestment and
sanctions activities and respond positively to calls
for such initiatives.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
"Al-Haq Welcomes B’Tselem’s Recognition of Israeli
,” January 21, 2020. ["In particular, Al-Haq
welcomes B’Tselem’s recognition that apartheid
exists, as part of a singular regime of racial
domination and oppression, on both sides of the
Green Line, and the central role played by domestic
Israeli legislation, such as the 1950 Law of Return,
the 1950 Absentee Property Law, and the 2018
Jewish Nation-State Basic Law in entrenching Jewish
national supremacy over all Palestinians.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
"Civil Society Urges the Human Rights Council to
Recognise and Address Israeli Apartheid
” [Joint Oral
Intervention by 
Al Mezan Centre for Human Rights,
Al Haq, Law in the Service of Man, Cairo Institute for
Human Rights Studies, Women's Centre for Legal Aid
and Counselling], Al-Haq, October 20, 2020.

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
"Palestinian, regional, and international groups
submit report on Israeli apartheid to UN Committee
on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
November 12, 2019. ["The report outlines that
since 1948 the State of Israel has instituted a
series of discriminatory laws, policies, and
practices – constituting the legal foundation of
the State – which seek to maintain a racialized
regime of dispossession, domination, and
systematic fragmentation of the Palestinian
people. This conduct by the State serves to
persistently deny the right of reparation,
including consensual return to their homes,
lands, and property, to Palestinian refugees
and other persons displaced in the waves of
ethnic cleansing carried out since the State’s
establishment. Moreover, the report details
how Israel has continued to confer public
functions of the State to the World Zionist
Organization/Jewish Agency and the Jewish
National Fund, which are chartered to carry
out material discrimination against
non-Jewish persons.”]

Assi, Seraj. Just Ask Israel”  Donald Trump is selling
his border wall by touting Israel’s separation wall — a
barrier that even many supporters admit amounts to
apartheid,” Jacobin, January 10, 2019. ["For decades,
Israeli officials have employed the Hebrew term Hafrada
(“separation” or “segregation”) to describe Israel’s
governing policy in the West Bank and Gaza, which
involves keeping Palestinians apart from both the
Israeli population and the Jewish settler community
in the occupied Palestinian territories. The so-called
West Bank Barrier, known in Hebrew as “Gader Ha-Hafrada”
(“Separation Fence”), was built in accordance with this
Hafrada vision….  (Rabin) ordered the construction of a
thirty-mile wall along the Gaza Strip. Rabin’s Hafrada
vision was summed up in his famous pledge to “take
Gaza out of Tel Aviv.” As he declared in 1994: “We
have to decide on Hafrada as a philosophy.” A year
later, Rabin told Israelis: “We have to reach a
separation between us and them.” 
Putting philosophy
into action, he established a special commission to
discuss the implementation of Hafrada and
formulate a “separation plan.” // 
While some
Israelis like to distinguish between “hard separation”
(Rabin and Barak) and “soft separation” (Peres and
Olmert), the result has been the same: an apartheid
form of physical division where one ethnic group is
free and the other is not. This is not to suggest that
Israel’s Hafrada is identical to South Africa’s apartheid,
but that apartheid, or separateness, as a system of
enforced segregation based on race and ethnicity and
imposed by a sovereign and dominant group over an
impoverished one, can take myriad forms.”]

Ateek, Naim. “Hafrada” or a Genuine Peace?
Corner Stone, Issue 29 - Summer 2003. [“Theologically
speaking the building of the wall of “hafrada” (Hebrew
for separation) by Israel is inevitably its way of building
and maintaining “empire.”...The tragedy  of
Israel is that it has built its empire on the foundation
of injustice and oppression; consequently it will always
feel the need to build walls of “hafrada”.]

Badil Resource Center for Palestinian Residency
and Refugee Rights, "Israel and the Crime of Apartheid:
Towards a Comprehensive Analysis
,” Al Majdal, Issue
No.47, Autumn 2011. [PDF downloadable
["In this issue, BADIL’s staff set out the legal
context of the denial of the Palestinian
and Max du Plessis provides
background to the prohibition of Apartheid in
international law
. Professor John Dugard outlines
his experiences under South African Apartheid and
in Israel and the OPT
. David Keane provides a
background to the definition of racial groups in
international law
and Ingrid Jaradat analyzes this
in relation to Palestinians as a racial group
.” // Also
includes "Applying the crime of Apartheid to Israel’s
regime over the Palestinian people: Are Palestinians a
distinct ‘racial group’?
” by Ingrid Jaradat Gassner;
"Separate Legal Systems for Jewish-Israeli Settlers
and Palestinians in the Occupied Territories
,” by
Emily Schaeffer; 
"Denial of the right to life and liberty
of person as an act of apartheid
,” by Sahar Francis;
"House Demolitions and Israel's Policy of Hafrada,”
by Jeff Halper; "Persecution in International Law,” by
Raji Sourani; "The world is silent while the State of
Israel continues its racist policy and criminal activity
against the Arab minority in the Naqab
,” by Jazzi Abu
Kaf; "BDS Campaign Updates (June - September 2011),
by BADIL Staff; "Legal and Administrative Measures
Impacting Residency Rights and Freedom of Movement
Fragmentation of the Palestinian Population to Prevent
Their Development
,” by al-Haq. (Abstract of Al-Haq’s
submission to the Russell Tribunal on Palestine

Benvenisti, Meron. "Bantustan plan for an apartheid
,” The Guardian [UK], April 25, 2004. [“And
thus, with breathtaking daring, Sharon submits a
plan that appears to promise the existence of a
"Jewish democratic state" via "separation", “the
end of the conquest", the "dismantling of
settlements" - and also the imprisonment of
some 3 million Palestinians in bantustans. This
is an "interim plan" that is meant to last forever.
The plan will last, however, only as long as the
illusion is sustained that "separation" is a means
to end the conflict. The day will come when
believers in this illusion will realise that
"separation" is a means to oppress and dominate,
and then they will mobilise to dismantle the
apartheid apparatus.”]

B’Tselem. "A regime of Jewish supremacy from the Jordan
River to the Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid
January 12, 2021.

Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, “United
Nations: In response to Unprecedented Recognition
of Israel’s Apartheid Regime, States Must Take Concrete
Steps to End this unjust reality
,” June 17, 2020.

Coconi, Luciana, and David Bondia. “Apartheid
Against the Palestinian People,”  September, 2012.
[Downloadable pdf here.]

Cohen, Mari. "Apartheid Is Israel’s “Desired
” [converstion with Amira Hass], Jewish
Currents, June 12, 2019. [“(T)he current reality
is actually one state, which is an apartheid state.
This means there are two separate laws: one for
Palestinians and one for Israeli Jews. The
Palestinian population is subdivided into groups
and subgroups like the nonwhite population of
South Africa. They’re disconnected from each other.
They are treated differently by Israel, while Israeli
Jews live in the entire country, like one people, with
full rights….For Israel, this is the desired reality:
that Palestinians live in their enclaves, deprived of
any ability to develop the economy, and that the
world gives them donations so that they can sustain
themselves. And that’s it. There is no desire on the
part of Israel to reach a different reality. There has
been a kind of an illusion among Jews [in the
diaspora] that Israel wants a solution. But [Israeli
Jews] don’t see that this is a problem.”]

Cook, Jonathan. "Israel is losing the fight to obscure
its apartheid character
. New report by rights group
B'Tselem will make it harder to smear Israel's critics
as antisemites for arguing that Israel is a racist state,

Middle East Eye, January 14, 2021. 

Dawber, Alistair. "Israel’s Palestinian-only buses
prompt apartheid comparisons
,” Independent [UK],
March 3, 2013.

Dugard, John. "Apartheid and the occupation of
. As the Russell Tribunal convenes to discuss
apartheid, Israel has already surpassed South Africa’s
racist era,” Al Jazeera, November 4, 2011.

Dugard, John and John Reynolds. “Apartheid,
International Law, and the Occupied Palestinian
,” The European Journal of International
Law, Vol. 24 no. 3, 2013.

Eglash, Ruth. "Is Israel an ‘apartheid’ state? This U.N.
report says yes
,” The Washington Post, March 16,
2017. ["JERUSALEM — If being an apartheid state
means committing inhumane acts, systematic
oppression and domination by one racial group over
another, then Israel is guilty, a United Nations panel
has determined in a new report.”]

Eid, Haidar. "Israel’s nation-state law: Apartheid
. After approving the 'new' nation-state law,
we seem to be heading to the inevitable: a confrontation
with Jewish supremacy in its ugliest form,” Middle East
Eye, July 24, 2018. ["This is why I am, as a Palestinian
descendent of refugees from the ethnically cleansed
village of Zarnouqa, entitled to my internationally
sanctioned right of return….Unlike the new
post-apartheid South Africa, in the state of Israel
all human beings are not equal. Israel now defines
itself as a "Jewish state". And since almost 22
percent of the citizens of Israel are Palestinians,
they are excluded from being citizens of that state.
(There are a further four million Palestinians living
under direct military occupation in the Gaza Strip
and the West Bank). Israel is not a state for all
its citizens.”] 

El-Ad, Hagai. "We are Israel's largest human rights
group – and we are calling this apartheid
. The
systematic promotion of the supremacy of one group
of people over another is deeply immoral and must
 The Guardian [UK], January 12, 2021. [“Although
there is demographic parity between the two peoples
living here, life is managed so that only one half enjoy
the vast majority of political power, land resources,
rights, freedoms and protections. It is quite a feat to
maintain such disfranchisement. Even more so, to
successfully market it as a democracy (inside the
“green line” – the 1949 armistice line), one to which
a temporary occupation is attached. In fact, one
government rules everyone and everything between
the river and the sea, following the same organising
principle everywhere under its control, working to
advance and perpetuate the supremacy of one group
of people – Jews – over another – Palestinians. This
is apartheid.”]

Erakat, Noura. "The structural roots of Israeli apartheid.
Recent rulings by the Israeli high court have made a
mockery of the concepts of equality, justice, and
dignity for all,” Al Jazeera, October 29, 2013. [“Within
Israel, the ban on family reunification has forced
Palestinian citizens, constituting approximately 20
percent of Israel’s population, to build their families
and lives outside of their place of birth if they marry
a Palestinian from the Occupied Territories or a resident
of an “enemy state”. After the Israeli High Court upheld
the discriminatory ban, Israeli Knesset member Yaakov
Katz explained “… the State of Israel was saved from
being flooded by 2-3 million Arab refugees“. The
intended purpose of Israeli laws, policies, and decrees
within the state, as well as the Occupied Territories,
is to diminish the Palestinian population. Under
international law, this policy amounts to forced
population transfer. In common speech, it is ethnic
cleansing – sometimes by Israeli military might and
sometimes via the law.”]

Farsakh, Leila. "Independence, Cantons, or Bantustans:
Whither the Palestinian State?
”  Middle East Journal
Vol. 59, No. 2, Changing Geopolitics (Spring, 2005), pp.
230-245 (16 pages).

Finkelstein, Norman G. "The Jewish supremacist
state (A comment on B’Tselem’s ‘apartheid regime’
designation for Israel)
,” Mondoweiss, January 15, 2021.
["Henceforth, supporters of Palestinian rights should
at every possible occasion bring home the point,
“Israel, which is a Jewish supremacist state,…” “Benjamin
Netanyahu, the Jewish supremacist prime minister of
Israel…,” “the Anti-Defamation League and the British
Board of Deputies, which support the Jewish supremacist
state of Israel,…” If taken to task on this point, the
simple reply should be, “But one of Israel’s leading
human rights organizations has concluded that Israel
is organized around the principle of Jewish

Gordon, Neve. "Time to boycott Israel,” The Guardian
[UK], August 21, 2009. ["The most accurate way to
describe Israel today is as an apartheid state. For
more than 42 years, Israel has controlled the land
between the Jordan Valley and the Mediterranean
sea. Within this region about 6 million Jews and
close to 5 million Palestinians reside. Out of this
population, 3.5 million Palestinians and almost
half a million Jews live in the areas Israel occupied
in 1967, and yet while these two groups live in the
same area, they are subjected to totally different
legal systems. The Palestinians are stateless and
lack many of the most basic human rights. By
sharp contrast, all Jews – whether they live in the
occupied territories or in Israel – are citizens of
the state of Israel.”]

Greenstein, Ran. “Israel, Palestine, and
,”  Insight Turkey, Winter 2020,
Volume 22, Number 1 / Also see
University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa;
ORCID No: 0000-0001-6910-4420, DOI:
10.25253/99.2020221.06, Page: pp. 73-92

Haaretz. "Desmond Tutu: U.S. Christians Must
Recognize Israel as Apartheid State
. Veteran
anti-apartheid campaigner Desmond Tutu wants
Presbyterian Church, currently meeting in Detroit,
to pass series of anti-Israel resolutions,” Haaretz,
June 17, 2014.

Halper, Jeff. "Nishul (Displacement): Israel’s
form of Apartheid," Israeli Committee Against House
Demolitions, February 6, 2007. [Download pdf here.]

Hasan, Mehdi. "Israel: Democracy or Apartheid?
Mehdi Hasan and Noura Erakat break down this
week’s Israeli elections
,” The Intercept, September
19, 2019. ["That’s my guest today, the Palestinian
American lawyer, author and activist Noura Erakat.
The big question I want to ask her is: regardless of
these non-stop elections, is Israel an apartheid state?”]

Hasan, Mehdi. "Top Israelis Have Warned of Apartheid, so Why
the Outrage at a UN Report? 
Pressure from the U.S. and Israel
forced out a United Nations official, but plenty of Israelis have
spoken about their country becoming an apartheid state,” The
Intercept, March 22, 2017.

Independent. "Apartheid Israel can be defeated, says Winnie.
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, former president of the African
National Congress Women's League, said on Thursday:
"Apartheid Israel can be defeated, just as apartheid in South
Africa was defeated,” March 26, 2004.

Independent Jewish Voices Canada [IJV]. “Talking About
Apartheid: IJV Fact Sheet
,” October 25, 2019.

International Press Center [IPC]. “Arun Ghandi: Occupation
"Ten Times Worse than Apartheid
August 29, 2004

Iraqi, Amjad. "Palestinians are tired of proving
Israeli apartheid exists
. There is nothing that an
annexation bill can tell us that decades of Israeli
laws and policies haven’t already,” +972, June
17, 2020. ["Now they are sounding the alarm that
next month could be the tipping point that finally
seals this fate. / It is rather obscene, however, that
many people are still waiting for a specific piece of
legislation, or a certain government order, to validate
the accounts of millions of Palestinians experiencing
apartheid as we speak. Like South Africa, Israel’s
complex regime was not created by a single dramatic
“moment”: it was meticulously designed over decades,
fueled by an ideology that rejected equality between
the natives and the settlers who, in Reitz’s words,
had “made this land their home.” / Why, for example,
was Israel not an apartheid state in 1950, when it
introduced the Absentees’ Property Law to transfer
Arab land to Jewish immigrants? Why wasn’t it apartheid
when the Knesset annexed East Jerusalem in 1980, in
the same way it is preparing to do with the Jordan
Valley today? Or in 2003, when it banned Palestinians
from uniting with family members who have Israeli
citizenship, yet still allowed any Jew abroad to be
naturalized under the Law of Return?”]

Jamjoum, Hazem. "Not an analogy: Israel and
the crime of apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, April3,
2009. ["The South African version of apartheid’s
central tenet was to facilitate the exploitation of as
many Black laborers as possible, whereas the Israeli
version, although exploiting Palestinian workers,
prioritizes the forced displacement of as many
Palestinians as possible beyond the borders of the
state with the aim of eradicating Palestinian
presence within historic Palestine. South African
visitors to Palestine have often commented on the
fact that Israeli use of force is more brutal than
that witnessed in the heyday of apartheid, thus
leading several commentators to adopt the position
that Israel’s practices are worse than apartheid
and that the apartheid label does not go
far enough….[Yet] In terms of law, describing
Israel as an apartheid state does not revolve
around levels of difference and similarity with
the policies and practices of the South African
apartheid regime, and where Israel is an
apartheid state only insofar as similarities
outweigh differences….First, Israel’s crimes
and violations are not limited to the crime of
apartheid. Rather, Israel’s regime over the
Palestinian people combines apartheid,
military occupation and colonization in a
unique manner….The second point worth
reiterating is that Israel’s regime of
apartheid is not limited to the West Bank
and Gaza Strip. In fact, the core of Israel’s
apartheid regime is guided by
discriminatory legislation in the fields
of nationality, citizenship and land

Kasrils, Ronnie. "Apartheid in duplicate,” Middle East
Monitor, January 29, 2014. [“(Hendrik Verwoerd) liked
to equate the history and doctrine of the two countries
in an attempt to neutralise Western condemnation of
South Africa, and did so by declaring infamously: "The
Jews took Israel from the Arabs after the Arabs had lived
there for a thousand years. Israel like South Africa, is an
apartheid state." (Rand Daily Mail, 23 Novemeber 1961).
Verwoerd's logic was simple: We have treated our blacks
no differently to what Israel has done to the Arabs. Why
pick on us?”]

Kasrils, Ronnie. "I fought South African apartheid. I
see the same brutal policies in Israel
. I was shut down
in South Africa for speaking out, and I’m disturbed that
the same is happening to critics of Israel now,
” The
Guardian [UK], April 3, 2019.

Kasrils, Ronnie. "Netanyahu and Trump must learn the
lessons of apartheid South Africa
. A people united in a
just struggle with international solidarity, such as the
BDS campaign for Palestinian rights, will achieve justice
in the end
” Middle East Eye, February 24, 2020.

Laor, Yitzhak. "Israeli Arabs Have Never Been Equal
Before the Law
. The looming expulsion of thousands
will be carried out with the silent agreement of
enlightened members of society, because maintaining
a Jewish majority is an ideological common denominator
for the overwhelming majority of Israelis,” Haaretz,
January 16, 2012.

Lappin, Yaakov. "Zionist Federation cancels
Haaretz journalist
. Columnist Danny Rubinstein
reportedly likens Israel to apartheid South Africa,”
YNet, August 31, 2007. ["The Zionist Federation of
Great Britain has cancelled a scheduled appearance
by Haaretz columnist Danny Rubinstein, after he
reportedly likened Israel to apartheid South Africa
during a UN conference in Brussels on Thursday.
According to a UN report, Rubinstein said that “Israel
today was an apartheid State with four different
Palestinian groups: those in Gaza, East Jerusalem,
the West Bank and Israeli Palestinians, each of
which had a different status.”] Also see “Haaretz
Editor Refuses to Retract Israel Apartheid Statements
Haaretz editor and board member Danny Rubinstein
insists Israel is an “apartheid state” and that many at
Haaretz agree,” Arutz Sheva [A7], September 5, 2007.

Lazaroff, Tovah. "B’Tselem, for first time, labels
Israel an apartheid state
. Accusation is antisemitic
‘blood libel,’ says law professor,” The Jerusalem
Post, January 12, 2021.

Levy, Gideon. "Not ‘Apartheid in the West Bank.’
,” Haaretz, January 17, 2021. ["It’s impossible
to speak any longer about “apartheid in the territories.”
It’s impossible to separate the territories and Israel, and
it’s impossible to consider the occupation temporary.
The conclusion: Israel is an apartheid state. Just as in
South Africa it was ludicrous to talk about democracy,
even though elections were held, it’s ridiculous to view
Israel as a democracy.”]

Levy, Gideon. “The Duty to End Israeli Apartheid,”
Haaretz, January 20, 2021. [“Israelis will never wake
up one morning and recognize that the occupation
is not good and not just and must be ended. It just
won’t happen. It hasn’t happened for 53 years and
there’s no reason it will suddenly happen now. The
reason can only be provided by the international
community – if it demands that Israel accept
responsibility and be subject to punitive measures.
This is the international community’s right and duty.
/ This duty is all the more compelling when we’re no
longer talking about temporary violations of
international law, fleeting war crimes or a military
occupation like any other. When the occupation
becomes apartheid and defines the identity of the
state, international action is required – yes, just as
happened with South Africa. What worked there
could work here too. Let’s see what happens when
Israelis start to pay for the sins of their state. A true
patriot should yearn for that day. Which is why the
discussion of Israel as an apartheid state is
so important.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Twilight Zone / 'Worse Than Apartheid’,”
Haaretz, July 9, 2008. ["I thought they would feel right
at home in the alleys of Balata refugee camp, the Casbah
and the Hawara checkpoint. But they said there is no
comparison: for them the Israeli occupation regime is
worse than anything they knew under apartheid. This
week, 21 human rights activists from South Africa visited
Israel. Among them were members of Nelson Mandela’s
African National Congress; at least one of them took part
in the armed struggle and at least two were jailed. There
were two South African Supreme Court judges, a former
deputy minister, members of Parliament, attorneys, writers
and journalists. Blacks and whites, about half of them
Jews who today are in conflict with attitudes of the
conservative Jewish community in their country. Some
of them have been here before; for others it was their
first visit.”]

Levy, Gideon. "You Bet It’s ApartheidWith Ahed
Tamimi's sentence to jail, the truth has come out
about Israel, Haaretz, April 17, 2018. 

Lingaas, Carola. "The Crime against Humanity of
Apartheid in a Post-Apartheid World
,” Oslo Law
Review 02 / 2015 (Volume 2).

Lynfield, Ben. "Marriage law divides Israeli
Arab families
Under new legislation, Arabs
from the occupied territories may no longer
join their spouses in Israel," Christian Science
Monitor, August 8, 2003.

Mac Allister, Karine. "Applicability of the
Crime of Apartheid to Israel
,” BDS and the
Global Anti-Apartheid Movement (Issue
No.38, Summer 2008)

McCarthy, Rory. "Barak: make peace with
Palestinians or face apartheid
,” The Guardian
[UK], February 2, 2010. ["As long as in this
territory west of the Jordan river there is only
one political entity called Israel it is going to
be either non-Jewish, or non-democratic,”
Barak said. "If this bloc of millions of
Palestinians cannot vote, that will be an
apartheid state."]

McCarthy, Rory. "Occupied Gaza like apartheid
South Africa, says UN report
,” The Guardian [UK],
Febryary 23, 2007.

Macintyre, Donald. “'This is like apartheid': ANC
veterans visit West Bank
,” Independent [UK],
July 11,2008.

Macintyre, Donald. “'Racist' marriage law
upheld by Israel
,” Independent [UK], October
22, 2011.

Middle East Monitor. "Israel Democracy
Institute uncovers shocking racism
in 'apartheid state’
,” January 18, 2021.
["A report by the Israel Democracy Institute
has uncovered shocking levels of racism
among the country's Jewish citizens. Dubbed
the Democracy Index, the think tank's 2020
report has been released after a leading human
rights group branded Israel an apartheid state.
The institute found that nearly half of the
country's Jewish population support the idea
of having ethnically separate communities….
More entrenched racist attitudes were highlighted
by the respondents' answer to a question about
working in different communities. While 93 per
cent of the country's Palestinian population said
that they were willing to work in Jewish
communities, only 41 per cent of Jews said
that they were willing to do the reverse.
Similarly, two-thirds of Jewish respondents
(67 per cent) said that they are willing to work
under an Arab supervisor, while a huge
majority of Palestinian respondents (92
per cent) are willing to work for a
Jewish supervisor.”]

Mohamed, Mohamed. "Israel’s False, Apartheid
,” Palestine Center Brief No. 316
(July 20, 2018). ["Democracy in Israel never
died because it never existed in the first place.
A true democracy would not have over 50
discriminatory laws, many of which have been
passed recently, favoring one group of its citizens
(Jewish Israelis) over another (Palestinians). Until
Israel gets rid of the prejudice that is inherent to
its political system and plagues its society, it
should not complain about being labeled as an
apartheid state.”]

The Movement Against Israeli Apartheid in Palestine. [MAIAP
 - see the link “Anti-Apartheid Mobilization”]

Munayyer, Yousef. "Not All Israeli Citizens Are
,” New York Times, May 23, 2012. ["In the
1950s new laws permitted the state to take
control over Palestinians’ land by classifying
them “absentees.” Of course, it was the state
that made them absentees by either preventing
refugees from returning to Israel or barring
internally displaced Palestinians from having
access to their land. This last group was ironically
termed “present absentees” — able to see their
land but not to reach it because of military
restrictions that ultimately resulted in their
watching the state confiscate it. Until 1966,
Palestinian citizens were governed under martial
law. / Today, a Jew from any country can move
to Israel, while a Palestinian refugee, with a valid
claim to property in Israel, cannot. And although
Palestinians make up about 20 percent of Israel’s
population, the 2012 budget allocates less than 7
percent for Palestinian citizens. / Tragically for
Palestinians, Zionism requires the state to
empower and maintain a Jewish majority even at
the expense of its non-Jewish citizens, and the
occupation of the West Bank is only one part of it.
What exists today between the Jordan River and
the Mediterranean Sea is therefore essentially one
state, under Israeli control, where Palestinians
have varying degrees of limited rights: 1.5 million
are second-class citizens, and four million more
are not citizens at all. If this is not apartheid, then
whatever it is, it’s certainly not democracy.”]

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "Top Israeli rights
group breaks “apartheid” taboo
,” Electronic
Intifada, January 13, 2021. ["One key aspect
of Israel’s apartheid rule overlooked in B’Tselem’s
position paper is the denial of Palestinian refugees’
right to return – a form of “demographic
engineering” recognized in the ESCWA report
suppressed by the UN. / 
“Israel defends its rejection
of the Palestinians’ return in frankly racist language,”
the ESCWA report states. “It is alleged that Palestinians
constitute a ‘demographic threat’ and that their return
would alter the demographic character of Israel to the
point of eliminating it as a Jewish state.” / The UN body
described Israel’s denial of the right of return as
“integral to the system of oppression and domination
of the Palestinian people as a whole.”]

Nassar, Tamara. "Israeli town halts property
sales after realizing most buyers were Palestinians
Electronic Intifada, March 21, 2018. [“Preventing
Palestinian citizens of Israel “from purchasing
homes due strictly to their national identity is an
illegitimate act,” Adalah added. “In a climate in
which the Israeli Knesset continues to promote
racist legislation targeting Arab citizens, Kfar
Vradim’s council leader feels emboldened to
promote racist policies and to trample the most
basic of democratic principles,” the group stated.”]

Nebehay, Stephanie. "U.N. rights envoy points to apartheid
in Palestinian areas
,” Reuters, February 24, 2014.

Ofir, Jonathan. "Israel can no longer shake off
the Apartheid label
,” Mondoweiss, February 5, 2020.
["Those who have made the comparison between
Israeli policy and Apartheid, have sometimes
regarded the Israeli case as worse: South African
law professor Prof. John Dugard, former special
rapporteur for the United Nations on the situation
of human rights in the Palestinian territories
…. Baleka Mbete, chair of the African National
Congress …. Israeli writer and journalist (Haaretz
contributor) Yitzhak Laor …. Professor
Noam Chomsky”]

Palestinian BDS National Committee
(BNC). "
Colonialism and Apartheid.” 

Paritzky, Yossi. "Our apartheid state,”
YNet, July 24, 2007.

Patel, Yumna. “In ‘watershed’ moment,
B’Tselem labels Israel ‘apartheid regime.’

The reality is that there are millions of
Palestinians and Israelis living under the
control of a single regime, but with vastly
unequal rights,” Mondoweiss, January 13, 2021.

Patel, Yumna. “Israel says vaccine equally
available to all citizens. But is that really the
 Israeli authorities are failing to provide
essential information on the vaccine in Arabic,
to establish vaccine centers in Palestinian
neighborhoods in East Jerusalem, and to
provide sufficient vaccines in Bedouin clinics
in the Negev. These failures are “not a
coincidence”, rights groups say,” Mondoweiss,
January 14, 2021.

Queers Against Israeli Apartheid. “Apartheid 101.”

Quigly, John. “Apartheid Outside Africa: The
Case of Israel,” 2 Ind. International and
Comparative Law Review. 221, 1991-1992

Rettman, Andrew. "No EU cost for Israeli
'apartheid' in West Bank
,” EUobserver,
February 1, 2019. ["Alon Liel, a former
Israeli diplomat, said Israel was doing to
Palestinians what South Africa did to blacks
before its apartheid regime fell in 1991. /
"The West Bank legal regime is a form of
institutionalised racial segregation. A simpler
description would be apartheid," he told this
website. / "I was Israel's ambassador to South
Africa, so I have a basis to compare," Liel, who
held the post in Pretoria from 1992 to 1994,
and who later became director of Israel's foreign
ministry, said. / South Africa emancipated blacks
in part due to Western economic sanctions.”]

Reuters. "Israel imposes 'apartheid regime’ on
Palestinians: U.N. report
,” March 15, 2017.

Russel Tribunal on Palestine. "Submission to
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial
Discrimination (CERD) in its review of Israel’s
14th  to 16th periodic reports to the committee
January 2012. ["The findings of the Russell Tribunal
on Palestine suggest multiple grounds to refute
the claim that no apartheid or segregation practices
exist under Israeli jurisdiction. The Tribunal made
findings in respect of Israel’s policies and practices
by reference to three core elements of the definition
of apartheid as drawn from its common elements
under the International Convention on the Elimination
of all forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), the
International Convention on the Suppression and
Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (the Apartheid
Convention) and the Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court: o the presence of two distinct racial
groups o the commission of acts defined as ‘inhuman
acts’ of apartheid o the institutionalised nature of
domination by one group over another….The existence
of ‘racial groups’ is fundamental to the question of
apartheid. The situation in Israel/Palestine is not
defined in terms of traditional conceptions of ‘race’
as it was in apartheid South Africa. On the basis of
expert evidence heard during the Cape Town session,
the Tribunal concluded that international law (including
as applied in ICERD) gives a broad meaning to the term
‘racial’ as including elements of ethnic and national
origin, and therefore that the definition of ‘racial group’
is a sociological rather than biological one. Perceptions
(including self-perceptions and external perceptions) of
Israeli Jewish identity and Palestinian identity illustrate
that Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs can readily be
defined as distinct racial groups for the purposes of the
prohibition of apartheid under international law. From
the evidence received, it was clear to the jury that two
distinct, identifiable groups exist ina very practical sense
and that the legal definition of ‘racial group’ applies to
all circumstances in which the Israeli authorities have
jurisdiction over Palestinians.”]

Sarid, Yossi. "Yes, It Is Apartheid,” Haaretz,
April 24, 2008.

Schocken, Amos. "Citizenship law makes
Israel an apartheid state
We do not have to
identify the characteristics of South African
apartheid in the civil rights discrimination
in Israel in order to call Israel an apartheid
state. It is best that we not try to evade the
truth: The Citizenship Law's existence turns
Israel into an apartheid state, Haaretz, June
27, 2008.

Sharon Smith. “Israel’s apartheid at 60,”
Socialist Worker, May 22,2008.

Sharp, Heather. "Families fight 'racist’ Israeli
citizenship law
,” BBC News, March 9, 2010.

Siegman, Henry. "Imposing Middle East Peace.
Forceful outside intervention is the only alternative
to an unstable and dangerous status quo,” The
Nation, January 7, 2010. ["Israel has crossed the
threshold from “the only democracy in the Middle
East” to the only apartheid regime in the Western

Silverstein, Richard. “Israeli NGO: Israel Is an
Apartheid Regime
,” Jacobin Magazine, January
22, 2021. ["The report roundly rejects an
argument favored by bastions of liberal Zionism
like Haaretz, the Zionist Left Meretz, and J Street:
that Israel within the Green Line is a democracy,
while everything beyond it is an unjust usurpation
of Palestinian rights to statehood. This conception
views Israel and the Occupied Territories as two
separate entities — Israel good, occupation bad.
B’Tselem now rejects this duality. It also rejects
the claim that Israel is a democracy: because equal
rights are denied to Palestinian citizens based
on religion or ethnicity.”]

Sprusansky, Dale. "Barghouti Discusses
Israeli Apartheid, BDS Campaign
,” Washington
Report on Middle East Affairs, May 2012, Pages
71-72. ["With regard to Israeli apartheid, Barghouti
noted that last November the Russell Tribunal on
Palestine concluded that "Israel's rule over the
Palestinian people, wherever they reside,
collectively amounts to a single integrated
regime of apartheid….Comparing apartheid
in South Africa and Israel, Barghouti pointed
out that 93 percent of Israel's non-occupied
land is effectively for Jews only, while 86
percent of the land was off-limits to blacks
in South Africa.”]

St. John, Ronald Bruce. "Apartheid By Any Other
,” CounterPunch, February 2, 2007.

Sherwood, Harriet. "Palestinians draw parallels with
Mandela's anti-apartheid struggle
,” The Guardian
[UK], December 12, 2013.

Tatour, Lana. "Why calling Israel an apartheid
state is not enough
. Report from B’Tselem
highlighting Israel's apartheid character is a
welcome development, but this finding cannot
be divorced from the state's oppressive
settler-colonialism,” Middle East Eye, January
18, 2021.

Thrall, Nathan. "The Separate Regimes
Delusion: Nathan Thrall on Israel’s apartheid
London Review of Books, Vol 43 No 2, January 21, 2021.
[“...millions of Palestinians continue to be deprived
of basic civil rights and subjected to military rule.
With the exception of those six months in 1966-67,
this has been the reality for the majority of
Palestinians living under Israeli control for the
entire history of the state. South Africa’s apartheid
lasted 46 years. Israel’s is at 72, and counting.”]

Tutu, Desmond. "Apartheid in the Holy Land,”
April 28, 2002.

War on Want. "Israeli apartheid factsheet,”
January 12, 2021.

White, Ben. "UN report: Israel has established an ‘apartheid
Report breaks new ground on the UN’s examination
of the situation in occupied Palestine by using the word
‘apartheid,’ Al Jazeera, March 18, 2017.

Winstanley, Asa. "It's time to admit that
Israel is an apartheid state
,” Middle East
Monitor, April 24, 2018. ["The UN document
points out that, although the word apartheid
is of Afrikaans origin, the wider practice is a
more general one of systemic racism which
applies to regimes beyond South Africa. For a
start, other white supremacist regimes in Africa
had extremely similar practices, such as Rhodesia,
as Zimbabwe was once called. / The definition of
apartheid under the convention makes it clear
that Israel's occupation regime in the West Bank
is an apartheid model.”]

Winstanley, Asa. "Why Israel is a settler-colony,”
Middle East Monitor, January 23, 2021. ["Those of
us using the term apartheid to describe Israel are
not claiming that the histories of South Africa and
Palestine are identical. That is not the point. There
are, however, many similarities. / As I've argued in
previous columns, the main point is simply that
Israel fits the definition of apartheid under
international law – which applies globally, and not
just in southern Africa. / The second claim is also
incorrect in my view. While Israel's unambiguous
military dictatorship as applied to the three million
Palestinians of the West Bank is not enforced on the
Palestinian citizens of Israel, nonetheless, the latter
are still subjected to an apartheid regime. / They are
at best second-class citizens. Although they have
voting rights (which Black people under South African
apartheid did not), under Israeli law they are very much
treated as inferior to Jewish Israeli citizens. / The so-called
"Nation-State Law" of 2018 was only the most brazen
manifestation of that reality.Palestinian human rights
group Adalah (Arabic for"justice") maintains a database
of the many Israeli laws which discriminate against the
state’snon-Jewish Arab citizens.”]

Yesh Din [Volunteers for Human Rights].
The Occupation of the West Bank and
the Crime of Apartheid: Legal Opinion
July 9, 2020.

Zahalka, Jamal. 'New Laws Legalize Apartheid in
Israel.' Report from a Palestine Center briefin
For the Record, No. 116, June 11, 2002

Israeli Apartheid Week

Israel is an Apartheid State

"A protestor carries a sign during a demonstration by Palestinian,
Israeli and foreign protesters against the newly-opened Route 4370,
on January 23, 2019, in the occupied West Bank. - The highway into
Jerusalem divides Israeli and Palestinian drivers into separate lanes
with a wall, leading Palestinians to label it an "apartheid road". Its
western side serves Palestinians, who cannot enter Jerusalem,
whereas the roads eastern side serves settlers, who can now reach
northern Jerusalem. (Photo by ABBAS MOMANI / AFP) (Photo credit
should read ABBAS MOMANI/AFP via Getty Images)"

Who Can Vote

[Also denied voting rights: Palestinian
refugees in the diaspora who wish to be
citizens, but unlike diaspora Jews,
are denied the right of return …]

"This duty is all the more compelling when we’re no
longer talking about temporary violations of international
law, fleeting war crimes or a military occupation like any
other. When the occupation becomes apartheid and defines
the identity of the state, international action is required – yes,
just as happened with South Africa. What worked there
could work here too.”
– Gideon Levy, "The Duty to End Israeli
," Haaretz,  January 21, 2021

Race, the Floating Signifier: Featuring Stuart Hall