11. Israeli Apartheid

Israeli Apartheid A VP

Israeli Apartheid B VP

Israeli Apartheid 1 VP

Israeli Apartheid 2 VP

Israeli Apartheid 3 VP

Israeli Apartheid 4 VP

Israeli Apartheid 5 VP



Website for "It is Apartheid” 

Website for “Israeli Apartheid Week

Website for “Coalition Against Israeli Apartheid"


Apartheid in Palestine

Ageel, Ghana, editor. Apartheid
in Palestine: Hard Laws and
Harder Experiences
, University
of Alberta Press, 2016.

Zionist Israel and Aparthied South Africa

Badran, Amneh. Zionist Israel
and Apartheid South Africa
Civil society and peace building
in ethnic-national states,
Routledge, 2013.

Peace or Apartheid

Bishara, Marwan.
Palestine/Israel: Peace or
Apartheid: Prospects for
Resolving the Conflict
, Zed
Books, 2001 

Carey, Chomsky - The New Intifada

Carey, Roane, ed., Noam Chomsky,
Introduction, The New Intifada:
Resisting Israel’s Apartheid
Verso, 2001. [Contributors: Ali
Abunimah, Ghassan Andoni, Omar
Barghouti, Nidal Barham, Azmi Bishara,
Noam Chomsky, Robert Fisk,
Muna Hamzeh, Hussein Ibish, Jan
de Jong, Jennifer Loewenstein, Nancy
Murray, Allegra Pacheco, Mouin
Rabbani, Glenn Robinson, Sara
Roy, Edward Said, Salman Abu Sitta,
Gita Svirsky, Ahdaf Soueif.]

Palestine - Peace Not Apartheid

Carter, Jimmy. Palestine: Peace Not
, Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Neoliberal Apartheid

Clarno, Andy. Neoliberal
and South Africa after 1994
University of Chicago
Press, 2017.

Uri Davis - Apartheid Within

Davis, Uri. Apartheid Israel:
Possibilities for the Struggle
, Zed Books, 2003.

Front Cover

Davis, Uri. Israel, an Apartheid
, Zed Books, 1987.

Dawson, Ashley and Bill V.
Mullen, eds., Against Apartheid:
The Case for Boycotting Israeli
, Haymarket
Books, 2015.

Dugard - Confronting Apartheid

Dugard, John. Confronting
Apartheid: A personal history
of South Africa, Namibia and
, Jacana Media, 2019.

Is Israel an Apartheid State

ICAHD-USA has provided
an easy-to-read summary
of a 15-month study conducted
an international group of
legal analysts. The 2009 study 
commissioned by the South
African Human Sciences
Research Council (HSRC)
and funded by the South
African Department of Foreign
Affairs. Read and download
the summary here, download
the full report [300+ pages] here.

Engler - Building Apartheid

Engler, Yves. Canada and Israel:
Building Apartheid
, Red
Publishing / Fernwood Publishing,

Apartheid Israel

Jacobs, Sean and Jon Soske
Apartheid Israel:
The Politics of an Analogy
Haymarket Books, 2015.

Do It Yourself Apartheid

Palestinian Grassroots
Anti-Apartheid Wall
Campaign, Do - It - Yourself
Apartheid in Palestine | Israel
The World Bank and ‘Sustainable
Development' of the Palestinian
Ghettos (Italian), Stop the Wall, 2005.

Israel and South Africa - The Many Faces of Apartheid

Pappé, Iilan, editor. Israel and
South Africa: 
The Many Faces
of Apartheid
, Zed Books, 2015.

The Unspoken Alliance

The Unspoken
Alliance: Israel's Secret
Relationship with Apartheid
South Africa
, Pantheon, 2010.
Weaved into the author’s
fascinating narrative lies the
disturbing debate about the
degree of moral end political
congruence that might have
existed between the two allies,
Israel’s political and defense
establishment on the one hand
and the Afrikaner ‘master race’
on the other.” —Shlomo
Ben-Ami, Foreign Minister
of Israel, 2000-2001]

Ruebner - Israel - Democracy or Apartheid State

Rueben, Josh. Israel:
Democracy or Apartheid State?
Olive Brance Press, 2017.

Apartheid is a Crime

Svensson, Mats, Ramzy
Baroud, Introduction. Apartheid
is a Crime (2nd Edition): Portraits
of the Israeli Occupation
of Palestine
, Cune Press, 2020.

Svensson - Crimes, Victims and Witnesses

Svensson, Matts. Crimes,
Victims and Witnesses: Apartheid
in Palestine
, Real African
Publishers, 2013.

Tilley, Virginia, ed. Beyond
Occupation: Apartheid, Colonialism
and International Law in the
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Pluto Press, 2012.

Cracks in the Wall

White, Ben. Cracks in the Wall:
Beyond Apartheid in Palestine/Israel
Pluto Press, 2018.

Ben White Israeli Apartheid

White, Ben. Israeli Apartheid:
A Beginner's Guide
, Second
Edition, Pluto Press, 2014.

Younis, Mona. Liberation
and Democratization: 
South African and Palestinian
National Movements
University of Minnesota
Press, 1999. 

Documents and Articles

Adalah [The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel].
The Discriminatory Laws Database, September 25, 2017.

Basic Law: Israel –The Nation State of the Jewish People
Unofficial English translation – 25 July 2018

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA) [United Nations]. "Israeli Practices towards
the Palestinian People and the Question of Apartheid
Palestine and the Israeli Occupation, Issue No. 1,
E/ESCWA/ECRI/2017/1. [74 pages - downloadable pdf.
"This reportwas commissioned by the Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) from
authors Mr. Richard Falkand Ms. Virginia Tilley.]

Human Sciences Research Council. “Occupation,
Colonialism, Apartheid? A re-assessment of Israel’s
practices in the occupied Palestinian territories under
international law
,” Capetown, South Africa, May, 2009.
["The analysis of apartheid in this study encompasses
three distinct issues: (1) the definition of apartheid;
(2) the status of the prohibition of apartheid
in international law; and (3) whether Israel’s practices
in the OPT amount to a breach of that prohibition….
Israel appears clearly to be implementing and sustaining
policies intended to maintain its domination over
Palestinians in the OPT and to suppress opposition
of any form to those policies…. this study finds that
the State of Israel exercises control in the OPT with
the purpose of maintaining a system of domination
by Jews over Palestinians and that this system
constitutes a breach of the prohibition of apartheid.”] 

International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the
Crime of Apartheid
, G.A. res. 3068 (XXVIII)), 28 U.N. GAOR Supp.
(No. 30) at 75, U.N. Doc. A/9030 (1974), 1015 U.N.T.S. 243, entered
into force July 18, 1976. [Also here.]

International Criminal Court. Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court
, done at Rome on 17 July 1998, in force on 1 Jul
 2002, United Nations, Treaty Series,  vol.  2187,  No.  38544, 
Depositary:  Secretary-General  of  the  United  Nations,
http://treaties.un.org. [Also here.]

International Court of Justice. Advisory opinion of the
International Court of Justice on the Legal Consequences of
the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian
, July 7, 2004.

Knesset News. "Full text of Basic Law: Israel as the
Nation State of the Jewish People
,” July 19, 2018.

UNESCWA, “Israeli Practices toward the Palestinian People
and the Question of Apartheid,” March 2017. Removed
from UNESCWA’s website upon instruction of the UN Secretary
General. Read the pdf here.

Abbes, Ahmed and Jonathan Rosehead. "2021, the
year of Israeli apartheid
. More than 1000
academics, artists and intellectuals have signed
a "Declaration on the Suppression and Punishment
of the Crime of Apartheid in Historic Palestine,” in
a sign of the growing acceptance of the term in
the west,” Mondoweiss, July 27, 2021. 

Abdelnour, Samer. "Understanding Israeli Apartheid,”
[presentation August 14, 2014, at The Palestine
Center, Washington, DC] / Also see Samer
Abdelnour, Beyond South Africa: Understanding
Israeli Apartheid
, Al-Shabaka, April 4, 2013.

Abunimah, Ali. "Israel “far worse than
apartheid South Africa” says ANC chair
as Pretoria conference backs boycott
Electronic Intifada, October 29, 2012.
["Activists in South Africa have welcomed
a decision by the African National Congress
(ANC) International Solidarity Conference
to support the Palestinian-led campaign of
boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS)
against Israel. The ANC, South Africa’s
ruling party, led the decades-long struggle
against apartheid….The ANC Chairperson,
Baleka Mbete, strongly responded saying
that she has been to Palestine herself and
that the Israeli regime is not only
comparable but “far worse than Apartheid
South Africa.” Ms Mbete received a
resounding round of applause from
delegates for articulating this position.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "Israel renews racist marriage law,”
Electronic Intifada, June 3, 2020. ["Israel this week
renewed one of the most overtly racist of the dozens
of laws on its books that discriminate against
Palestinians and Palestinian citizens of Israel.
The “Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law”
prohibits Israeli citizens who marry Palestinians
from the occupied West Bank or Gaza Strip, or
nationals from several other regional states,
from living with their spouse in Israel….The
law is part of Israel’s efforts to prevent the
growth of the Palestinian population, a
fundamentally racist measure justified by
Israeli leaders as necessary to maintain a
Jewish majority….In intent and effect the
Israeli citizenship law is no different to the
laws that used to exist in apartheid South
Africa to prevent miscegenation, the
“interbreeding” of people of different races,
and to control where Black people could
live – laws such as the Group Areas Act and
the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "It’s apartheid “clear and simple,”
Pink Floyd’s Roger Waters tells his Israeli fans
Electronic Intifada, October 11, 2013. ["But the
fact is that there are different rules of law for
Arabs and Jews. Completely different. In the
occupied territories, Jews are governed under
a civil law and have completely different rules
in terms of their movement and so on and so
forth … and the occupied people, the
Palestinians and the Arabs, are under martial
law. And it’s a completely different set of laws.
They also have completely different sets of
documents. / It’s just like the old pass laws in
South Africa. It is apartheid. Clear and simple.
If you go and look at the definition of what the
crime of apartheid is, then it describes perfectly
what’s going on in the West Bank. And not quite
so perfectly, but also, Gaza, which is under siege,
it’s completely surrounded. They have no freedom.
When one race or ethnic group subjugates
another race or ethnic group, to its power and
control, that is the crime of apartheid.”]

Abunimah, Ali. Landmark UN report backs Israel
,” March 15, 2017. [
Published by the UN’s
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA), the report concludes that “Israel has
established an apartheid regime that dominates
the Palestinian people as a whole.” / 
It finds “beyond
a reasonable doubt that Israel is guilty of policies
and practices that constitute the crimes of apartheid”
as defined in international law. It urges national
governments to “support boycott, divestment and
sanctions activities and respond positively to calls
for such initiatives.”]

Abunimah, Ali. "New Netanyahu “peace” plan is
straight out of apartheid South Africa
,” Electronic
Intifada, July 28, 2017. ["Commonly referred to as
“transfer,” this proposal amounts to ethnic cleansing.
It is not a new idea, but Netanyahu’s broaching it
represents a further step in the Israeli government
formally adopting policies once considered taboo
even by many Israelis….The bantustans were a
mechanism to remove Black people physically –
by encouraging or forcing migration to them –
and politically from South Africa, while providing
no real rights. 
It is difficult to find any difference
with what Netanyahu – who has made clear his
aversion to seeing Palestinian citizens of Israel
vote – is proposing. There is one key difference:
unlike with apartheid South Africa whose
bantustans met universal rejection, many in
the so-called international community, including
Barack Obama when he was president, have
eagerly adopted Israel’s racist and
segregationist conception under the slogan
of “two states for two peoples.”

Abunimah, Ali. "South Africa ambassador
rejects gift from Israel, condemns “replication
of apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, June 19, 2013.
["South Africa’s former ambassador in Tel Aviv
has publicly rejected a gift from the Israeli
government, of 18 trees planted in his name
by the Jewish National Fund (JNF), on land
violently expropriated from its Palestinian

Abunimah, Ali. “Why can’t the EU say the word
” Electronic Intifada, April 29, 2021.
Despite its relentless propaganda about how
much it loves human rights, the EU stands – along
with the United States – as the greatest enabler of
Israeli apartheid, and thus an enemy of freedom,
justice and equality for Palestinians.”]

Adalah [The Legal Center for Arab Minority
in Israel]. “The Basic Law: Israel –The
Nation-State of the Jewish People,” November,
2018. [“The law lends discriminatory policies
against Palestinians greater legitimacy and
requires the executive, judiciary and other
authorities to implement them under the
rule of law. The law also reduces the very
grounds on which such discrimination can
be challenged under Israeli law. Despite the
foundational nature and far-reaching scope
of the Jewish Nation-State Law, however, it
contains no commitment to democratic norms,
or a guarantee of the right to equality, or a
prohibition of discrimination on the basis of
race, nationality, ethnicity or any other category
for all people living under Israeli sovereignty.
Indeed, it does not even define its citizenry,
referring instead to the Jewish people as its
subject, and defining sovereignty and democratic
self-rule as belonging solely to the Jewish people,
wherever they live around the world. Since the
law negates basic democratic principles to the
point of undermining the constitutional structure
of the state, in Adalah’s view, the Knesset
severely exceeded its powers as a constituent
authority in enacting it. Based on all of the
above, the law bears distinct characteristics
of apartheid.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
Al-Haq Welcomes B’Tselem’s Recognition of Israeli
,” January 21, 2020. ["In particular, Al-Haq
welcomes B’Tselem’s recognition that apartheid
exists, as part of a singular regime of racial
domination and oppression, on both sides of the
Green Line, and the central role played by domestic
Israeli legislation, such as the 1950 Law of Return,
the 1950 Absentee Property Law, and the 2018
Jewish Nation-State Basic Law in entrenching Jewish
national supremacy over all Palestinians.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
"Civil Society Urges the Human Rights Council to
Recognise and Address Israeli Apartheid
” [Joint Oral
Intervention by 
Al Mezan Centre for Human Rights,
Al Haq, Law in the Service of Man, Cairo Institute for
Human Rights Studies, Women's Centre for Legal Aid
and Counselling], Al-Haq, October 20, 2020.

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
Israeli Apartheid Undermines Palestinian Right to
Health Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic
,” April 7, 2020.
["On World Health Day, as States continue to respond
to the COVID-19 pandemic, Israeli apartheid remains
a major impediment to the enjoyment by all
Palestinians of their right to the highest attainable
standard of health. As we take steps to prevent
and mitigate the effects of the pandemic, our
organisations underline the root causes of Israel’s
structural and institutionalised oppression over
the Palestinian people in their efforts to develop
an adequate response to COVID-19. If
Palestinians’ inalienable rights are to be realised,
these root causes must be addressed.”]

Al-Haq [independent Palestinian human rights NGO].
Palestinian, regional, and international groups
submit report on Israeli apartheid to UN Committee
on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
November 12, 2019. ["The report outlines that
since 1948 the State of Israel has instituted a
series of discriminatory laws, policies, and
practices – constituting the legal foundation of
the State – which seek to maintain a racialized
regime of dispossession, domination, and
systematic fragmentation of the Palestinian
people. This conduct by the State serves to
persistently deny the right of reparation,
including consensual return to their homes,
lands, and property, to Palestinian refugees
and other persons displaced in the waves of
ethnic cleansing carried out since the State’s
establishment. Moreover, the report details
how Israel has continued to confer public
functions of the State to the World Zionist
Organization/Jewish Agency and the Jewish
National Fund, which are chartered to carry
out material discrimination against
non-Jewish persons.”]

Amoruso, Francesco and Endika
Settler Colonialisms
of a Special Type: Apartheid in
Palestine/Israel and South Africa
. A
review of Israel and South Africa: The
Many Faces of Apartheid. Edited by Ilan
Pappé. Zed Books (2015),” Alternatives
International Journal, November,2016.
["A crucial theme explored in thisbook,
as previously mentioned, is the
correlation between apartheid-like political
formations and peculiar kinds of (settler)
colonialism. Settler colonialism is a ‘one-way

ticket’ form of colonialism. This means that
the colonialists do not occupy foreign lands
for economic and strategic benefits to
European empires, but for the purpose
of settling and founding new societies.
These processes are characterised by
the inevitable dispossession of indigenous
peoples. The erasure of indigenous
cultures and the physical elimination of
indigenous peoples is never a complete
act, but on the contrary is a structuring
element of settler colonial societies in
the past as well as in the present, until
decolonisation (2). Apartheid is one
typology of settler colonial domination,
and occurs where the settlers do not
achieve the goal of establishing an
overwhelming demographic majority.
Separation, as opposed to assimilation,
is the instrument that both the South
African and Israeli regimes employ(ed)
to exclude the natives from the state.”]

Arria, Michael. “Yale student council
condemns ‘ethnic cleansing’ and ‘apartheid’
in Palestine
,” Mondoweiss, June 30, 2021.
["As students at one of the most privileged
academic institutions in the world, we must
call out injustice wherever it may occur. We
stand against the discriminatory application
of the law that strips Palestinians of basic
rights. We stand against the violent expulsions
of those living under occupation in Sheikh
Jarrah. We stand against the apartheid and
the persecution of Palestinians, and stand
for peace and the freedom of the Palestinian
people from violent military occupation.”]

Assaf, Roxane Ellis Rodriguez. Sabeel’s Rev.
Naim Ateek Calls Israeli Apartheid by Its Hebrew
Name: Hafrada
,” Washington Report on Middle
East Affairs, May 2003, pages 52-53. ["Rev. Canon
Dr. Naim Ateek, the visionary Palestinian leader of
Jerusalem’s Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology
Center, brought hope in a time of despair with a
concrete plan for peace. Borrowing from the term
for South Africa’s policy of white supremacy,
“apartheid,” Ateek referred to Israel’s actions as a
policy of “hafrada””“ Hebrew for “separation.”]

Assi, Seraj. Just Ask Israel”  Donald Trump is selling
his border wall by touting Israel’s separation wall — a
barrier that even many supporters admit amounts to
apartheid,” Jacobin, January 10, 2019. ["For decades,
Israeli officials have employed the Hebrew term Hafrada
(“separation” or “segregation”) to describe Israel’s
governing policy in the West Bank and Gaza, which
involves keeping Palestinians apart from both the
Israeli population and the Jewish settler community
in the occupied Palestinian territories. The so-called
West Bank Barrier, known in Hebrew as “Gader Ha-Hafrada”
(“Separation Fence”), was built in accordance with this
Hafrada vision….  (Rabin) ordered the construction of a
thirty-mile wall along the Gaza Strip. Rabin’s Hafrada
vision was summed up in his famous pledge to “take
Gaza out of Tel Aviv.” As he declared in 1994: “We
have to decide on Hafrada as a philosophy.” A year
later, Rabin told Israelis: “We have to reach a
separation between us and them.” 
Putting philosophy
into action, he established a special commission to
discuss the implementation of Hafrada and
formulate a “separation plan.” // 
While some
Israelis like to distinguish between “hard separation”
(Rabin and Barak) and “soft separation” (Peres and
Olmert), the result has been the same: an apartheid
form of physical division where one ethnic group is
free and the other is not. This is not to suggest that
Israel’s Hafrada is identical to South Africa’s apartheid,
but that apartheid, or separateness, as a system of
enforced segregation based on race and ethnicity and
imposed by a sovereign and dominant group over an
impoverished one, can take myriad forms.”]

Ateek, Naim. “Hafrada” or a Genuine Peace?
Corner Stone, Issue 29 - Summer 2003. [“Theologically
speaking the building of the wall of “hafrada” (Hebrew
for separation) by Israel is inevitably its way of building
and maintaining “empire.”...The tragedy  of
Israel is that it has built its empire on the foundation
of injustice and oppression; consequently it will always
feel the need to build walls of “hafrada”.]

Badil Resource Center for Palestinian Residency
and Refugee Rights, "Israel and the Crime of Apartheid:
Towards a Comprehensive Analysis
,” Al Majdal, Issue
No.47, Autumn 2011. [PDF downloadable
["In this issue, BADIL’s staff set out the legal
context of the denial of the Palestinian
and Max du Plessis provides
background to the prohibition of Apartheid in
international law
. Professor John Dugard outlines
his experiences under South African Apartheid and
in Israel and the OPT
. David Keane provides a
background to the definition of racial groups in
international law
and Ingrid Jaradat analyzes this
in relation to Palestinians as a racial group
.” // Also
includes "Applying the crime of Apartheid to Israel’s
regime over the Palestinian people: Are Palestinians a
distinct ‘racial group’?
” by Ingrid Jaradat Gassner;
"Separate Legal Systems for Jewish-Israeli Settlers
and Palestinians in the Occupied Territories
,” by
Emily Schaeffer; 
"Denial of the right to life and liberty
of person as an act of apartheid
,” by Sahar Francis;
"House Demolitions and Israel's Policy of Hafrada,”
by Jeff Halper; "Persecution in International Law,” by
Raji Sourani; "The world is silent while the State of
Israel continues its racist policy and criminal activity
against the Arab minority in the Naqab
,” by Jazzi Abu
Kaf; "BDS Campaign Updates (June - September 2011),
by BADIL Staff; "Legal and Administrative Measures
Impacting Residency Rights and Freedom of Movement
Fragmentation of the Palestinian Population to Prevent
Their Development
,” by al-Haq. (Abstract of Al-Haq’s
submission to the Russell Tribunal on Palestine

Barrows-Friedman, Nora. "Podcast Ep 29:
Israel convicts Issa Amro for protesting
,” Electronic Intifada, February 1,
2021. [“(W)e speak with Issa Amro,
co-founder of the activist group Youth
Against Settlements in the occupied
West Bank city of Hebron. 
Amro has
faced indictments for years over his
campaigns of nonviolent civil
disobedience against encroaching
Israeli settlements inside the city
and the apartheid system maintained
and protected by Israeli soldiers. On
6 January, Amro was convicted in an
Israeli military court on six charges,
including three counts of protesting
without a permit, two counts of
disrupting the activities of Israeli
soldiers and one count of assault on
a soldier. “My ask is not to stop going
after me,” Amro tells us. “My ask is to
close the Israeli military courts. My ask
is to end the Israeli military system…
if they don’t put me in jail this time,
they will put me in jail the next time
I protest.”]

Baruch, Ilan and Alon Leil. "It’s apartheid, say
Israeli ambassadors to South Africa
“It is clearer
than ever that the occupation is not temporary,
and there is not the political will in the Israeli
government to bring about its end,” GroundUp,
 June 8, 2021. ["
It is time for the world to
recognize that what we saw in South Africa
decades ago is happening in the occupied
Palestinian territories too. And just as the
world joined the struggle against apartheid
in South Africa, it is time for the world to take
decisive diplomatic action in our case as well
and work towards building a future of equality,
dignity, and security for Palestinians and
Israelis alike.”]

Bennis, Phyllis. "Why Human Rights Watch
Designating Israel's Crimes as Apartheid Is
a Very Big Deal
. The report reflects the power
of decades of work in defense of Palestinian
rights,” Common Dreams, May 5, 2021. ["And it
is precisely because the Palestinian-led and
broader movements for Palestinian rights have
accomplished so much in changing that discourse,
that an organization like HRW is now willing to
join the expanding chorus. Whether they admit it
or not, there can be little doubt that much of
HRW’s decision to issue this report now was
based on the recognition that not only is it no
longer political suicide to call Israeli apartheid
what it is, but that we are now at a tipping point
whereby failing to call out apartheid risks losing
credibility for a human rights organization.
That’s huge. The report reflects the power of
decades of work in defense of Palestinian rights.”]

Benvenisti, Meron. "Bantustan plan for an apartheid
,” The Guardian [UK], April 25, 2004. [“And
thus, with breathtaking daring, Sharon submits a
plan that appears to promise the existence of a
"Jewish democratic state" via "separation", “the
end of the conquest", the "dismantling of
settlements" - and also the imprisonment of
some 3 million Palestinians in bantustans. This
is an "interim plan" that is meant to last forever.
The plan will last, however, only as long as the
illusion is sustained that "separation" is a means
to end the conflict. The day will come when
believers in this illusion will realise that
"separation" is a means to oppress and dominate,
and then they will mobilise to dismantle the
apartheid apparatus.”]

Besser, James. Israel Chooses the Path to
. It was once possible to argue that
Israel's policies were not the same as apartheid
because their stated goal, however imperfectly
pursued, was to end the occupation. After
Netanyahu's reelection, this is no longer the
case,” Haaretz, March 20, 2015. [“(T)his week’s
election, with Benjamin Netanyahu poised to
serve another term with an even more hardline
coalition, means that apartheid is the path Israeli
voters have chosen. The inevitable results will
include even greater international isolation for
the Jewish state, a boost to efforts to apply
boycotts and sanctions, diminished support
from American Jews and endlessly intensifying
cycles of violence.][
James Besser was Washington
correspondent for the New York Jewish Week and
other Anglo-Jewish newspapers for 24 years before
his retirement in 2011.”]

B’Tselem. A regime of Jewish supremacy from the Jordan
River to the Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid
January 12, 2021.

B’Tselem. [Definition of Apartheid], January
12, 2021. [“
The Israeli regime enacts in all the
territory it contols (Israeli sovereign territory,
East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza
Strip) an apartheid regime. One organizing
principle lies at the base of a wide array of
Israeli policies: advancing and perpetuating
the supremacy of one group – Jews – over
another – Palestinians. / B’Tselem rejects
the perception of Israel as a democracy
(inside the Green Line) that simultaneously
upholds a temporary military occupation
(beyond it). B’Tselem reached the conclusion
that the bar for defining the Israeli regime
as an apartheid regime has been met after
considering the accumulation of policies and
laws that Israel devised to entrench its control
over Palestinians. / The key tool Israel uses to
implement the principle of Jewish supremacy
is engineering space geographically,
demographically and politically. Jews go about
their lives in a single, contiguous space where
they enjoy full rights and self-determination.
In contrast, Palestinians live in a space that is
fragmented into several units, each with a
different set of rights – given or denied by
Israel, but always inferior to the rights accorded
to Jews. / The Israeli regime pursues this
organizing principle in four major areas …”]

Burston, Bradley. "It’s Time to Admit It.
Israeli Policy Is What It Is: Apartheid
,” Haaretz,
August 17, 2015. ["What I’m about to write
will not come easily for me. I used to be one
of those people who took issue with the label
of apartheid as applied to Israel. I was one of
those people who could be counted on to argue
that, while the country’s settlement and occupation
policies were anti-democratic and brutal and
slow-dose suicidal, the word apartheid did not
apply. I’m not one of those people any more.”]
Also see: Ben Norton, "Leading Israeli journalist
says Israel is an Apartheid state
,” Mondoweiss,
August 18, 2015.

Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, “United
Nations: In response to Unprecedented Recognition
of Israel’s Apartheid Regime, States Must Take Concrete
Steps to End this unjust reality
,” June 17, 2020.

CBS News. "Israel bans groups that call it
an "apartheid state" from lecturing in schools
January 18, 2021. ["B'Tselem said it would not
be deterred by the minister's announcement.
"B'Tselem is determined to keep with its mission
of documenting reality, analyzing it, and making
our findings publicly known to the Israeli public,
and worldwide," it said in a statement.”]

Coconi, Luciana, and David Bondia. “Apartheid
Against the Palestinian People,”  September, 2012.
[Downloadable pdf here.]

Cohen, Mari. "Apartheid Is Israel’s “Desired
” [converstion with Amira Hass], Jewish
Currents, June 12, 2019. [“(T)he current reality
is actually one state, which is an apartheid state.
This means there are two separate laws: one for
Palestinians and one for Israeli Jews. The
Palestinian population is subdivided into groups
and subgroups like the nonwhite population of
South Africa. They’re disconnected from each other.
They are treated differently by Israel, while Israeli
Jews live in the entire country, like one people, with
full rights….For Israel, this is the desired reality:
that Palestinians live in their enclaves, deprived of
any ability to develop the economy, and that the
world gives them donations so that they can sustain
themselves. And that’s it. There is no desire on the
part of Israel to reach a different reality. There has
been a kind of an illusion among Jews [in the
diaspora] that Israel wants a solution. But [Israeli
Jews] don’t see that this is a problem.”]

Cole, Juan. "Brandeis U. Owes Jimmy Carter an
Apology: Israelis agree they run Apartheid State,
as Far Right Wing Coalition Emerges
,” Informed
Consent, October 26, 2012. ["About a third of
Jewish Israelis want to denaturalize Israeli Arabs,
depriving them of the right to vote. Nearly half
(47%) want some of these Israeli citizens to be
ethnically cleansed from Israel and ‘transferred’
to the West Bank, though, confusingly, 38% want
to annex the West Bank to Israel altogether. If that
happened, though, 69% say that they would oppose
giving citizenship to the 2.5 million Palestinians
who live there. / Residential segregation is a big
part of Apartheid. Some 42 percent of Jewish
Israelis would not want to live in the same building
with Israelis of Arab heritage. The same percentage
doesn’t want to see their children in the same class
with Israeli children who are ethnically Arab. / About
half want the Israeli state to treat Jewish citizens
better than it does Arabs, and 59% want majority-
affirmative-action, i.e. preferences for Jews over
Arabs in hiring.”]

Compane, Alie. "Why it’s right to call Israel an
’apartheid state,’
” IOL [SA], February 7, 2021.
["We argue that there is a moral case that qualifies
Israel as an apartheid state, especially as black South
Africans who hold to some extent, moral authority
on the question….South Africa’s former president
Kgalema Motlanthe argues that the Israeli version of
apartheid is far worse than what was experienced in
South Africa. While Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the
face of the non-violent anti-apartheid movement and
Nobel Peace laureate, agrees that the treatment of
Palestinians by the Israeli regime is familiar to that
of South Africans during apartheid. There are several
leaders of the anti-apartheid struggle who identify
with this moral contention: Letlapa Mphahlele of the
PAC, Motsoko Pheko of AZAPO, Joe Slovo of the SACP,
Winnie Mandela of the ANC and many others have
shared the same sentiment on Israeli apartheid. /
What many Israeli supporters get wrong is the constant
and relentless bit by bit comparison of apartheid
South Africa, deliberately degenerating a complex
institutionalised system of racial discrimination to
simple logic. For instance, the South African
apartheid regime had many black people in their
militarised police force as well as in their oppressive
legal systems. We had magistrates and prosecutors
who worked effectively for the apartheid regime. /
This does not mean apartheid was not alive and well,
simply because black people could not go to the same
beach as white people is not the crux of apartheid but
the moral of it. Same as there are different roads for
Jews and Palestinians, the Israeli regime has
Palestinians in their employ. It does not at any
point, invalidate the system of apartheid the
regime practices.”]

Cook, Jonathan. "Israel is losing the fight to obscure
its apartheid character
. New report by rights group
B'Tselem will make it harder to smear Israel's critics
as antisemites for arguing that Israel is a racist state,

Middle East Eye, January 14, 2021.

Cook, Jonathan. "Israel: Racist, violent policing
is at the heart of apartheid
. Amnesty International
report highlights how Israeli police protect Jewish
supremacism from any challenge by Palestinian
citizens,” Middle East Eye, July 1, 2021. ["This was
the damning verdict of an Amnesty International
report published last week. The findings indicate
that Israeli police view the country’s Palestinian
minority, a fifth of the population, as an enemy
rather than as citizens with a right to protest.
The report echoes what Palestinian leaders in
Israel and local human rights groups have long
said: that the default policing of the Palestinian
community in Israel is racist and violent. It
reflects the same values of Jewish supremacism
seen in the Israeli army’s brutal treatment of
Palestinians under occupation.”]

Cook, Jonathan. "Picnic video exposes both faces
of Israeli apartheid
. Israel upholds a system of
Jewish supremacy over the land, and it doesn’t
matter whether those challenging its apartheid
rule are Palestinian subjects without rights or
‘Arab’ citizens supposedly with full rights,”
Jonathan-cook.net, February 17, 2021. ["A short
video taken by a family as they picnicked in the
West Bank this month may be the best field
guide yet to Israel’s complex apartheid system
of state-sponsored Jewish supremacy. In the clip
posted to Facebook, armed Jewish settlers arrive
unexpectedly to break up the picnic of a Palestinian
family – including grandparents and two babies
– at a scenic public space on a hillside north
of Ramallah.”]

Cook, Jonathan. "Why Israel is an apartheid
,” Americans for Middle East Understanding,
March-April, 2018. ["More than a decade ago,
US President Jimmy Carter warned that Israel
was practising apartheid in the occupied
Palestinian territories. But in truth, it would
be more accurate to say Israel itself is an
apartheid state.”]

Council on American-Islamic Relations
[CAIR] / Huzaifa Shahbaz. “Criticizing
Israel’s Apartheid Policies Isn’t
Antisemitic — And Hasn’t Led to a
Surge in Antisemitic Incidents
,” June 4,
2021. ["Criticism of the Israeli government
isn’t antisemitic, and criticism of the
Israeli government did not spark a surge
in antisemitic incidents…. When you look
at the fine print, it becomes clear that some
of the ADL’s data was, at best,
mischaracterized, and at worst, simply
incorrect….Jewish writers and activists
have led the charge in pointing out the
ADL’s attempt to silence and smear
Palestinian human rights activists as
antisemitic is baseless. I concur with
them. Here are a few reasons why.”]

Davidson, Lawrence. “Defending Apartheid,”
To the Point Analysis [blog], January 9, 2021.
["In 2017 the United Nations Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
issued a report on the conditions of Palestinians
under Israeli rule. The report covered the
situations of both Palestinian citizens of Israel
and the subject population in the Occupied
Territories. The report concluded “Israel has
established an apartheid regime that dominates
the Palestinian people as a whole.” Though U.S
 and Israeli pressure managed to suppress the
report, evidence for this charge of apartheid
is clear-cut.”]

Davis, Rebecca. "Selling apartheid: new book
lays bare South Africa’s propaganda war
. At its
height, the government was running one of the
most expensive information campaigns in the world.
Rebecca Davis delves into this little-known history,”
Guardian [UK], September 1, 2015. ["To understand
the scope of the propaganda war, picture this scene:
the setting is a boardroom in 1970s South Africa under
the presidency of John Vorster. A group of bureaucrats
gather to hear the results of a survey undertaken by an
expensive New York PR firm, tasked with finding out
what people think of apartheid South Africa
What the bureaucrats hear isn’t
pretty. They’re told South Africa is the second
most most unpopular country in the world, just
after Idi Amin’s Uganda. The country is “less
favourably regarded” than both the Soviet Union
and China. 
This, Nixon writes in his new book
Selling Apartheid: South Africa’s Global Propaganda
War, was one of the moments that saw the country’s
information war step up a gear.”]

Dawber, Alistair. "Israel’s Palestinian-only buses
prompt apartheid comparisons
,” Independent [UK],
March 3, 2013.

Democracy Now. "Ex-U.N. Official John Dugard:
Israel’s Crimes are “Infinitely Worse” Than in
Apartheid South Africa
,” May 6, 2015. [Video]

Dugard, John. "Apartheid and the occupation of
. As the Russell Tribunal convenes to discuss
apartheid, Israel has already surpassed South Africa’s
racist era,” Al Jazeera, November 4, 2011.

Dugard, John. "Israel’s apartheid perfected and
. Israel’s decades-long occupation of
Palestinian territories is nothing but a textbook
example of apartheid – an offshoot of the South
African version, and has taken root,” New Frame,
October 8, 2020.

Dugard, John and John Reynolds. “Apartheid,
International Law, and the Occupied Palestinian
,” The European Journal of International
Law, Vol. 24 no. 3, 2013.

Eglash, Ruth. "Is Israel an ‘apartheid’ state? This U.N.
report says yes
,” The Washington Post, March 16,
2017. ["JERUSALEM — If being an apartheid state
means committing inhumane acts, systematic
oppression and domination by one racial group over
another, then Israel is guilty, a United Nations panel
has determined in a new report.”]

Eid, Haidar. "B’Tselem’s ‘bombshell’ apartheid
report: Stating the obvious
. The Israeli NGO’s
acknowledgement of Israel’s apartheid is just
a small step in the right direction,” Al Jazeera,
February 10, 2021. ["The report, titled “A regime
of Jewish supremacy from the Jordan River to the
Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid”, got the
Western world talking about the real nature of
the so-called “Israeli democracy” and paved the
way for the many parallels between modern-day
Israel and apartheid South Africa to be discussed
in the mainstream. Neither Edward Said nor
Archbishop Desmond Tutu was able to do that.
The UN special rapporteurs on the human rights
situation in the occupied Palestinian territories,
such as Richard Falk and John Dugard, were not
able to do that either. To be taken seriously, and
find itself a place in the pages of Western
newspapers, the statement that “Israel is an
apartheid state” had to come from Israeli
Jews themselves.”]

Eid, Haidar. "Israel’s nation-state law: Apartheid
. After approving the 'new' nation-state law,
we seem to be heading to the inevitable: a confrontation
with Jewish supremacy in its ugliest form,” Middle East
Eye, July 24, 2018. ["This is why I am, as a Palestinian
descendent of refugees from the ethnically cleansed
village of Zarnouqa, entitled to my internationally
sanctioned right of return….Unlike the new
post-apartheid South Africa, in the state of Israel
all human beings are not equal. Israel now defines
itself as a "Jewish state". And since almost 22
percent of the citizens of Israel are Palestinians,
they are excluded from being citizens of that state.
(There are a further four million Palestinians living
under direct military occupation in the Gaza Strip
and the West Bank). Israel is not a state for all
its citizens.”]

Eid, Haidar. "On solidarity with Palestine. We
must move international solidarity with Palestine
beyond the grassroots towards implementing
sanctions against Israel until it complies with
international law,” Mondoweiss, March 4, 2021.
["The fact that some Black South Africans
accepted the Bantustan system, did not
convince the international community of the
“legitimacy” and “humanity” of apartheid
and its “right to exist.” What needs to be
emphasized, within this context, is the
similarities between apartheid and the
exclusivist Zionist nature of Israel.”]

Eid, Haidr and Andy Clarno. “Rethinking
Our Definition of Apartheid: Not Just a
Political Regime
,” Al-Shabaka, August 27,
2017. ["As Israel intensifies its settler-colonial
project, apartheid has become an increasingly
important framework for understanding and
challenging Israeli rule in historic Palestine.
Under international law, apartheid is a crime
against humanity and states can be held
accountable for their actions. However,
international law has its limitations. To bring
about true justice and equality for Palestinians,
apartheid must be recognized as a system not
only of legal racial discrimination, but also of
racial capitalism.”]

El-Ad, Hagai. "We are Israel's largest human rights
group – and we are calling this apartheid
. The
systematic promotion of the supremacy of one group
of people over another is deeply immoral and must
 The Guardian [UK], January 12, 2021. [“Although
there is demographic parity between the two peoples
living here, life is managed so that only one half enjoy
the vast majority of political power, land resources,
rights, freedoms and protections. It is quite a feat to
maintain such disfranchisement. Even more so, to
successfully market it as a democracy (inside the
“green line” – the 1949 armistice line), one to which
a temporary occupation is attached. In fact, one
government rules everyone and everything between
the river and the sea, following the same organising
principle everywhere under its control, working to
advance and perpetuate the supremacy of one group
of people – Jews – over another – Palestinians. This
is apartheid.”]

Erakat, Noura. "The structural roots of Israeli apartheid.
Recent rulings by the Israeli high court have made a
mockery of the concepts of equality, justice, and
dignity for all,” Al Jazeera, October 29, 2013. [“Within
Israel, the ban on family reunification has forced
Palestinian citizens, constituting approximately 20
percent of Israel’s population, to build their families
and lives outside of their place of birth if they marry
a Palestinian from the Occupied Territories or a resident
of an “enemy state”. After the Israeli High Court upheld
the discriminatory ban, Israeli Knesset member Yaakov
Katz explained “… the State of Israel was saved from
being flooded by 2-3 million Arab refugees“. The
intended purpose of Israeli laws, policies, and decrees
within the state, as well as the Occupied Territories,
is to diminish the Palestinian population. Under
international law, this policy amounts to forced
population transfer. In common speech, it is ethnic
cleansing – sometimes by Israeli military might and
sometimes via the law.”]

Falk, Richard. "A Debate on Peacemaking:
Ending Occupation or Apartheid
,” RichardFalk.org,
March 9, 2018. ["This post consists of an exchange
of views prompted by my talk at a United Methodist
Church in Culver City (Los Angeles) published by
Tikkun’s online magazine, March 6, 2018. The core
disagreement is whether to retain the emphasis on
ending occupation as still the best, and some say, the
only path to peace, and my view that a sustainable
peace can only be obtained by a process of eliminating
the apartheid structure by which Israel currently
subjugates the Palestinian people as a whole (that is,
including those living as a minority in pre-1967 Israel
or in refugee camps spread across neighboring countries
or as involuntary exiles in the Palestinian global

Falk, Richard. “Contra Israeli Apartheid,”
RichardFalk.org, December 1, 2019. [“The
text below is a modified version of remarks
made at the opening plenary session of the
“1st Global Conference on Israeli Apartheid:
Dimensions, Repercussions and the Means to
Combat It,” 29-30 November 2019, Istanbul./
…. What made this linkage of fragmentation
and apartheid so important was that it was an
inclusive way of understanding the scope of the
distinctiveness of Israeli apartheid, embracing
refugees, exiles, minority, and occupied Palestine
in a single indivisible framework of victimization
by way of racist domination of one ethnicity over
another. This meant that if apartheid, as thus
understood, were to be credibly dismantled, it
would have to give equal status to Palestinians
formerly marginalized or ignored by the long
prevailing peace formula of expectations arising
from an emphasis on the ‘land for peace’ slogan.”]

Falk, Richard. "The Inside Story on Our UN
Report Calling Israel an Apartheid State
. A
people cannot be permanently repressed in
all these ways without viewing the structure
that has emerged as an apartheid regime,” The
Nation, March 22, 2017. ["What is striking about
this response, which resembles in many respects
the US government response to the Goldstone
Report (the UN Fact-Finding Mission on theGaza
Conflict of 2008-9), is the degree to which
Israel’s supporters, in response to criticism,
have sought to discredit the messenger rather
than address the message.”]. Also see
“somewhat modified version” (in
RichardFalk.org., March 26, 2017):
Is Israel an Apartheid State?"

Farsakh, Leila. "Independence, Cantons, or Bantustans:
Whither the Palestinian State?
”  Middle East Journal
Vol. 59, No. 2, Changing Geopolitics (Spring, 2005), pp.
230-245 (16 pages).

Finkelstein, Norman G. "The Jewish supremacist
state (A comment on B’Tselem’s ‘apartheid regime’
designation for Israel)
,” Mondoweiss, January 15, 2021.
["Henceforth, supporters of Palestinian rights should
at every possible occasion bring home the point,
“Israel, which is a Jewish supremacist state,…” “Benjamin
Netanyahu, the Jewish supremacist prime minister of
Israel…,” “the Anti-Defamation League and the British
Board of Deputies, which support the Jewish supremacist
state of Israel,…” If taken to task on this point, the
simple reply should be, “But one of Israel’s leading
human rights organizations has concluded that Israel
is organized around the principle of Jewish

France, Steve. "Mainline church labels Israel an
Apartheid state, and more churches are sure to
. “We reject Israel’s apartheid system of laws
and legal procedures," the United Church of Christ
stated at its general synod, in a resolution approved
by 83 percent of members despite an appeal by the
American Jewish Committee,” Mondoweiss, July
22, 2021.

France, Steve. "What John Dugard tells us
about apartheid in South Africa and Israel/Palestine
Mondoweiss, June 7, 2021. ["The murkiness of Israeli
rules helps disguise them, which aggravates the
injustice of the Israeli form of apartheid and is a key
reason for Dugard’s damning verdict: “If one looks
at the situation as a whole, … at the way in which
Israel applies a policy of apartheid in the occupied
Palestinian territory … there is no doubt that Israel’s
transgressions, its violations of international law, far
exceed those of apartheid in South Africa.” / “The
central untruth of Zionism was the belief that
Palestine was a “land with no people.” When that
turned out to be untrue, Jewish Zionist settlers
silently amended the doctrine to mean “a land with
no people who matter.”]

Gessen, Masha. "Why an Israeli Human-Rights
Organization Decided to Call Israel an Apartheid
,” The New Yorker, January 27, 2021.
["B’Tselem appears to be the first Jewish-Israeli
human-rights organization to use the term
“apartheid” to refer to the Israeli regime in its
entirety, though Palestinian activists have been
using it for years….There is, of course, no
guarantee that B’Tselem’s statement will
enable change, although it has infuriated
the government and opened the organization
up to attacks from the powerful Israeli right.
But, after a year of discussions, B’Tselem
concluded that “we have a moral obligation
to say it, whether we think it’s effective or
not,” El-Ad said. There comes a time to say
that a line has been crossed, even if the
breach occurred long ago.”]

Giles, Kevin. "Justifying Injustice with the
Bible: Apartheid
,” CBE International, April 20,
2016. ["This theology was backed by virtually
every Reformed theologian in South Africa. The
unambiguous and overwhelming support of
Apartheid by the Reformed churches justified and
legitimated the system. One of their most
respected theologians, F. Potgeiter, summed
up what was believed: "It is quite clear that no
one can ever be a proponent of integration on the
basis of the scriptures. It would be in a direct
contradiction of the revealed will of God to plead
for a commonality between whites, coloured, and
Blacks.” Similarly, an official statement of the
Reformed church stated, "The principle of apartheid
between races and peoples, also separate missions
and churches, is well supported by scripture.” It was
costly for any Reformed minister in South Africa to
oppose this appeal to the Bible in support of
Apartheid. They were branded as opponents of
the church to which they belonged and worse,
opponents of what the Bible so plainly endorsed.”] 

Gordon, Neve. "Time to boycott Israel,” The Guardian
[UK], August 21, 2009. ["The most accurate way to
describe Israel today is as an apartheid state. For
more than 42 years, Israel has controlled the land
between the Jordan Valley and the Mediterranean
sea. Within this region about 6 million Jews and
close to 5 million Palestinians reside. Out of this
population, 3.5 million Palestinians and almost
half a million Jews live in the areas Israel occupied
in 1967, and yet while these two groups live in the
same area, they are subjected to totally different
legal systems. The Palestinians are stateless and
lack many of the most basic human rights. By
sharp contrast, all Jews – whether they live in the
occupied territories or in Israel – are citizens of
the state of Israel.”]

Greenstein, Ran. "Colonial Legacies and the
Post-colonial African state
,” in “Review
Symposium: Mahmood Mamdani and the
Analysis of African Society,” African
Sociological Review, 1 (2), August 1997
["His argument for looking at South Africa
as one among many African societies and
states facing similar problems and
opportunities - its unique racial structure
notwithstanding - is particularly welcome
at the current conjuncture, as it offers a
fresh perspective on the challenges of
development in the post-Cold War world.
At the same time,the thesis presents certain
difficulties of a methodological, historical
and theoretical nature.”] 

Greenstein, Ran. “Israel, Palestine, and
,”  Insight Turkey, Winter 2020,
Volume 22, Number 1 / Also see
University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa;
ORCID No: 0000-0001-6910-4420, DOI:
10.25253/99.2020221.06, Page: pp. 73-92

Greenstein, Ran. “On Mandela’s legacy:
Three political innovations
,” +972, December
6, 2013. ["The first innovation was the move
toward mass mobilization and popular
struggle….The second innovation was the
link between political and social struggle
themes….The third innovation was the move
to transcend the racial boundaries created
by the apartheid regime.”] Also see: Kaufman,
Ami. "The top five most hypocritical Mandela
eulogies by Israeli politicians
,” +972,
December 6, 2013.

Haaretz. "Desmond Tutu: U.S. Christians Must
Recognize Israel as Apartheid State
. Veteran
anti-apartheid campaigner Desmond Tutu wants
Presbyterian Church, currently meeting in Detroit,
to pass series of anti-Israel resolutions,” Haaretz,
June 17, 2014.

Habitat International Coalition: 

Halper, Jeff. "Nishul (Displacement): Israel’s
form of Apartheid," Israeli Committee Against House
Demolitions, February 6, 2007. [Download pdf here.]

Hasan, Mehdi. "Israel: Democracy or Apartheid?
Mehdi Hasan and Noura Erakat break down this
week’s Israeli elections
,” The Intercept, September
19, 2019. ["That’s my guest today, the Palestinian
American lawyer, author and activist Noura Erakat.
The big question I want to ask her is: regardless of
these non-stop elections, is Israel an apartheid state?”]

Hasan, Mehdi. "Top Israelis Have Warned of Apartheid, so Why
the Outrage at a UN Report? 
Pressure from the U.S. and Israel
forced out a United Nations official, but plenty of Israelis have
spoken about their country becoming an apartheid state,” The
Intercept, March 22, 2017.

Hass, Amira. "The Problem With Talking About
Israeli Apartheid
,” Haaretz, July 5, 2021. [“The
problem is that in all the heat of the talk about
apartheid, a dynamic, active and dangerous
dimension of it – the Jewish settler colonialism –
has become dulled and blunted. According to the
ideology and policies of Jewish settler colonialism,
the Palestinians are superfluous. In short, it is
possible, worthwhile and desirable to live without
the Palestinians in this country between the river
and the sea. Their existence here is conditional,
dependent on our wishes and our goodwill – a
matter of time. The ideology of “superfluousness”
is a poison that spreads especially when the
process of settler colonialism is at its height.
And that is currently the situation in the West
Bank (including East Jerusalem.)….. But at a time
when the definition of the Israeli regime as
apartheid is becoming rooted in international
discourse, the element of the “superfluousness”
of Palestinians becomes blurred.”] Article archived here.

Hawari, Yara. "Apartheid from Within? The Palestinian
Citizens of Israel
,” Al-Shabaka, November 23, 2017.
["Executive Summary: The term apartheid is often used
to refer to the situation of the Palestinians under
occupation. Al-Shabaka Policy Fellow Yara Hawari
examines the application of the term to the Palestinian
citizens of Israel by focusing on citizenship, land,
education, and politics. She also discusses whether
such analysis can advance this community’s rights
and counter fragmentation among Palestinians as a whole.”]

Hixon, Walter L. "Israeli Apartheid: Calling It Like It Is,”
Washinton Report on Middle East Affairs, January, 2021.
["Sawsan Zaher of the Adalah Legal Center for Minority
Rights in Israel pointed out that although Palestinians
living within Israel’s borders might vote, serve in the
legislature or as judges, the 2018 Jewish nation-state
law mandates “ethnic supremacy” by defining Israel as
a “Jewish state” in which Hebrew is the official
language. “Discrimination and segregation and
ethnic supremacy” have thus been enshrined in
the constitution. Ironically, Zaher added, the basic
law “helped us a lot” because it “elevated reality to
the constitutional level.”]

Holmes, Oliver. "Israel is a non-democratic
apartheid regime, says rights group
. Embassy
spokesperson rejects ‘false claims’ in report that
alleges policies perpetuate supremacy of Jews over
Palestinians,” The Guardian [UK], January 11, 2021.
["Israel is not a democracy but an “apartheid regime”
that enforces Jewish supremacy over all the land it
controls, a leading domestic rights group has alleged
in a position paper bound to provoke fierce
controversy….B’Tselem said it rejected the dominant
assumption that Israel operates two separate systems
of rule concurrently – a democracy within its sovereign
territory while maintaining a half-century military grip
over Palestinians in the occupied territories. 
“Israel is
not a democracy that has a temporary occupation attached
to it,” said the body’s executive director, Hagai El-Ad.
“It is one regime between the Jordan River to the
Mediterranean Sea, and we must look at the full
picture and see it for what it is: apartheid.”]

Holmes, Oliver. "'One more racist law': reactions
as Israel axes Arabic as official language.
state’ law gives Jews exclusive rights over Arabs who
make up fifth of Israel’s population,” The Guardian
[UK], July 19, 2018. ["The passing of a law in Israel
that affords exclusive rights to Jewish people and
removes Arabic as an official language has rippled
through the country’s Arab minority, who have
decried the legislation as unabashedly racist.”]

Horowitz, Adam. "Henry Siegman:
Israel is ‘the only apartheid regime
in the Western world
,’” Mondoweiss,
,January 8, 2010. ["This is from Henry
Siegman in The Nation. Just a reminder,
Siegman was Executive Director of the
American Jewish Congress from 1978
to 1994, and has been connected to the
Council on Foreign Relations….Siegman:
"Israel’s relentless drive to establish “facts
on the ground" in the occupied West
Bank, a drive that continues in violation
of even the limited settlement freeze
to which Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu committed himself, seems
finally to have succeeded in locking in
the irreversibility of its colonial project.
As a result of that "achievement,” one
that successive Israeli governments
have long sought in order to preclude
the possibility of a two-state solution,
Israel has crossed the threshold from
"the only democracy in the Middle East
”to the only apartheid regime in the
Western world. . .”]

Housing and Land Rights Network: Habitat
International Coalition. "
Russell Tribunal:
"Israel Practices Apartheid
,” November 8, 2011.
["The Russell Tribunal on Palestine has found
that Israel's practices against the Palestinian
people are in breach of the prohibition of apartheid
under the international law. After two days of
intense inquiry and expert witness testimony,
following the review of reams of documentation,
the eminent jury of nine international experts
delivered its conclusions at Cape Town on Monday,
7 November. The Tribunal concluded unanimously
that “Israel subjects the Palestinian people to an
institutionalized regime of domination amounting
to apartheid as defined under international law.”
The jury reached this conclusion having paid
particular attention to the legal definition of
apartheid and ensuring that each of the defining
criteria was met.”]

Human Rights Watch. "A Threshold Crossed.
Israeli Authorities and the Crimes of
Apartheid and Persecution
,” April 27,
2021. [“...Israeli authorities methodically
privilege Jewish Israelis and discriminate
against Palestinians. Laws, policies, and
statements by leading Israeli officials make
plain that the objective of maintaining Jewish
Israeli control over demographics, political
power, and land has long guided government
policy. In pursuit of this goal, authorities have
dispossessed, confined, forcibly separated,
and subjugated Palestinians by virtue of
their identity to varying degrees of
intensity. In certain areas, as described in
this report, these deprivations are so severe
that they amount to the crimes against
humanity of apartheid and persecution.”]

Human Rights Watch. "Q&A: A Threshold
. Israeli Authorities and the Crimes
of Apartheid and Persecution,” April
27, 2021.

Independent. "Apartheid Israel can be defeated, says Winnie.
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, former president of the African
National Congress Women's League, said on Thursday:
"Apartheid Israel can be defeated, just as apartheid in South
Africa was defeated,” March 26, 2004.

Independent Jewish Voices Canada [IJV]. “Talking About
Apartheid: IJV Fact Sheet
,” October 25, 2019.

International Press Center [IPC]. “Arun Ghandi: Occupation
"Ten Times Worse than Apartheid
August 29, 2004

Iraqi, Amjad. "Palestinians are tired of proving
Israeli apartheid exists
. There is nothing that an
annexation bill can tell us that decades of Israeli
laws and policies haven’t already,” +972, June
17, 2020. ["Now they are sounding the alarm that
next month could be the tipping point that finally
seals this fate. / It is rather obscene, however, that
many people are still waiting for a specific piece of
legislation, or a certain government order, to validate
the accounts of millions of Palestinians experiencing
apartheid as we speak. Like South Africa, Israel’s
complex regime was not created by a single dramatic
“moment”: it was meticulously designed over decades,
fueled by an ideology that rejected equality between
the natives and the settlers who, in Reitz’s words,
had “made this land their home.” / Why, for example,
was Israel not an apartheid state in 1950, when it
introduced the Absentees’ Property Law to transfer
Arab land to Jewish immigrants? Why wasn’t it apartheid
when the Knesset annexed East Jerusalem in 1980, in
the same way it is preparing to do with the Jordan
Valley today? Or in 2003, when it banned Palestinians
from uniting with family members who have Israeli
citizenship, yet still allowed any Jew abroad to be
naturalized under the Law of Return?”]

Jamjoum, Hazem. "Refugees: Israeli
Apartheid’s Unseen Dimension
,” Al-Shabaka,
June 20, 2012. [“...forced population transfer,
including the denial of refugee return, lies at
the core of Israel’s brand of apartheid.”]

Jamjoum, Hazem. "Not an analogy: Israel and
the crime of apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, April 3,
2009. ["The South African version of apartheid’s
central tenet was to facilitate the exploitation of as
many Black laborers as possible, whereas the Israeli
version, although exploiting Palestinian workers,
prioritizes the forced displacement of as many
Palestinians as possible beyond the borders of the
state with the aim of eradicating Palestinian
presence within historic Palestine. South African
visitors to Palestine have often commented on the
fact that Israeli use of force is more brutal than
that witnessed in the heyday of apartheid, thus
leading several commentators to adopt the position
that Israel’s practices are worse than apartheid
and that the apartheid label does not go
far enough….[Yet] In terms of law, describing
Israel as an apartheid state does not revolve
around levels of difference and similarity with
the policies and practices of the South African
apartheid regime, and where Israel is an
apartheid state only insofar as similarities
outweigh differences….First, Israel’s crimes
and violations are not limited to the crime of
apartheid. Rather, Israel’s regime over the
Palestinian people combines apartheid,
military occupation and colonization in a
unique manner….The second point worth
reiterating is that Israel’s regime of
apartheid is not limited to the West Bank
and Gaza Strip. In fact, the core of Israel’s
apartheid regime is guided by
discriminatory legislation in the fields
of nationality, citizenship and land

Jiryis, Sabri [trans. Inea Bushnaq].
The Arabs in Israel, Monthly Review
Press [MR], New York, New York,
May, 1976.

Kasrils, Ronnie. "Apartheid in duplicate,” Middle East
Monitor, January 29, 2014. [“(Hendrik Verwoerd) liked
to equate the history and doctrine of the two countries
in an attempt to neutralise Western condemnation of
South Africa, and did so by declaring infamously: "The
Jews took Israel from the Arabs after the Arabs had lived
there for a thousand years. Israel like South Africa, is an
apartheid state." (Rand Daily Mail, 23 Novemeber 1961).
Verwoerd's logic was simple: We have treated our blacks
no differently to what Israel has done to the Arabs. Why
pick on us?”]

Kasrils, Ronnie. "I fought South African apartheid. I
see the same brutal policies in Israel
. I was shut down
in South Africa for speaking out, and I’m disturbed that
the same is happening to critics of Israel now,
” The
Guardian [UK], April 3, 2019.

Kasrils, Ronnie. "Netanyahu and Trump must learn the
lessons of apartheid South Africa
. A people united in a
just struggle with international solidarity, such as the
BDS campaign for Palestinian rights, will achieve justice
in the end
” Middle East Eye, February 24, 2020.

Khalek, Rania. "How today’s liberal Zionists echo
apartheid South Africa’s defenders
,” Electronic
Intifada, February 13, 2014. ["Liberal Zionists have
adopted the same arguments in defense of Israeli
occupation that conservative opponents of sanctions
on South Africa’s apartheid regime used in the 1980s.”]

Kuttab, Jonathan. "Is Israel an Apartheid State?” Arab
Center Washington DC, February 6, 2021. [“In essence,
a careful analysis of the convention shows that there are
three elements necessary to find a crime of apartheid: a
regime of separation or segregation on the basis of
race, creed, or ethnicity; the use of a legal system
and legislative measures for enforcement of such
separation; and the commission of inhumane acts
and violations of human rights and denial of freedoms
and forced ghettoization. 
Such violations of human
rights and basic freedoms, while illegal under
international law, do not in and of themselves
necessarily constitute the crime of apartheid. It
is when they are used as a means of controlling
and dominating one group (the Palestinians) by
another (the Israeli state) that they fulfill the
definition of crime of apartheid.”]

Laor, Yitzhak. "Israeli Arabs Have Never Been Equal
Before the Law
. The looming expulsion of thousands
will be carried out with the silent agreement of
enlightened members of society, because maintaining
a Jewish majority is an ideological common denominator
for the overwhelming majority of Israelis,” Haaretz,
January 16, 2012.

Lappin, Yaakov. "Zionist Federation cancels
Haaretz journalist
. Columnist Danny Rubinstein
reportedly likens Israel to apartheid South Africa,”
YNet, August 31, 2007. ["The Zionist Federation of
Great Britain has cancelled a scheduled appearance
by Haaretz columnist Danny Rubinstein, after he
reportedly likened Israel to apartheid South Africa
during a UN conference in Brussels on Thursday.
According to a UN report, Rubinstein said that “Israel
today was an apartheid State with four different
Palestinian groups: those in Gaza, East Jerusalem,
the West Bank and Israeli Palestinians, each of
which had a different status.”] Also see “Haaretz
Editor Refuses to Retract Israel Apartheid Statements
Haaretz editor and board member Danny Rubinstein
insists Israel is an “apartheid state” and that many at
Haaretz agree,” Arutz Sheva [A7], September 5, 2007.

Lazaroff, Tovah. "B’Tselem, for first time, labels
Israel an apartheid state
. Accusation is antisemitic
‘blood libel,’ says law professor,” The Jerusalem
Post, January 12, 2021.

Levy, Gideon. “The Duty to End Israeli Apartheid,”
Haaretz, January 20, 2021. [“Israelis will never wake
up one morning and recognize that the occupation
is not good and not just and must be ended. It just
won’t happen. It hasn’t happened for 53 years and
there’s no reason it will suddenly happen now. The
reason can only be provided by the international
community – if it demands that Israel accept
responsibility and be subject to punitive measures.
This is the international community’s right and duty.
/ This duty is all the more compelling when we’re no
longer talking about temporary violations of
international law, fleeting war crimes or a military
occupation like any other. When the occupation
becomes apartheid and defines the identity of the
state, international action is required – yes, just as
happened with South Africa. What worked there
could work here too. Let’s see what happens when
Israelis start to pay for the sins of their state. A true
patriot should yearn for that day. Which is why the
discussion of Israel as an apartheid state is
so important.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Israeli Apartheid? Look No
Further Than This Racist Law
,” Haaretz,
June 20, 2021. ["To put it briefly: After the
Law of Return, this is the law that exemplifies
more than any other the domination of Jewish
supremacism in this country. A Jew can share
his life with whomever he or she chooses, and
an Arab can’t. Just like that, despairingly and
painfully simple. Any country that treated its
Jewish citizens like that would be reviled.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Not ‘Apartheid in the West Bank.’
,” Haaretz, January 17, 2021. ["It’s impossible
to speak any longer about “apartheid in the territories.”
It’s impossible to separate the territories and Israel, and
it’s impossible to consider the occupation temporary.
The conclusion: Israel is an apartheid state. Just as in
South Africa it was ludicrous to talk about democracy,
even though elections were held, it’s ridiculous to view
Israel as a democracy.”]

Levy, Gideon. "President Herzog's Merry Visit to
Israel's Apartheid Schools
,” Haaretz, September 1,
2021. ["The president of the apartheid state and his
wife conducted a state visit this week to “white
farms” in the West Bank. The new president, who
is considered a leftist, visited two of them, one
violent and the other bourgeois, both on stolen
land according to international law. In one, he
toured an ulpana, or girl’s religious school, while
 in the other he visited a Montessori school. That’s
the beauty of the white farms: They contain “the
whole Israeli mosaic,” as the president put it.”]

Levy, Gideon. "Twilight Zone / 'Worse Than Apartheid’,”
Haaretz, July 9, 2008. ["I thought they would feel right
at home in the alleys of Balata refugee camp, the Casbah
and the Hawara checkpoint. But they said there is no
comparison: for them the Israeli occupation regime is
worse than anything they knew under apartheid. This
week, 21 human rights activists from South Africa visited
Israel. Among them were members of Nelson Mandela’s
African National Congress; at least one of them took part
in the armed struggle and at least two were jailed. There
were two South African Supreme Court judges, a former
deputy minister, members of Parliament, attorneys, writers
and journalists. Blacks and whites, about half of them
Jews who today are in conflict with attitudes of the
conservative Jewish community in their country. Some
of them have been here before; for others it was their
first visit.”]

Levy, Gideon. "We Can Keep Lying to Ourselves
on 'Apartheid,' but Israel Has Crossed the Line
Haaretz, April 28, 2021. Archived version here.
["There’s no longer any way to challenge
the diagnosis of apartheid. Only lying
propagandists can claim that Israel is
a democracy when millions of people
have been living in it for decades under
one of the most tyrannical military regimes in
the world. Neither is there any way to avoid
the fact that all three elements of apartheid
under the The Hague’s Rome Statute, which
are described in the HRW report, exist in
Israel: maintaining the domination of one
racial group over another, systematic
oppression of the marginalized group,
and inhumane acts….But when important
international organizations assert what has
long been reality, that Israel is indeed an
apartheid state, they can no longer look
away in Washington, Berlin, Paris and
London. Someone there also must ask:
Are we permitted to deal with the second
apartheid state with the same tools used
against the first? Why not? Because the
whites here are Jews? Because there was
a Holocaust? What difference does it make?”] 

Levy, Gideon. "You Bet It’s ApartheidWith Ahed
Tamimi's sentence to jail, the truth has come out
about Israel, Haaretz, April 17, 2018. 

Lingaas, Carola. "The Crime against Humanity of
Apartheid in a Post-Apartheid World
,” Oslo Law
Review 02 / 2015 (Volume 2).

Los Angeles Times. "Leading Israeli
human rights group calls Israel an ‘apartheid’
,” January 12, 2021. [“One of the
keypoints in our analysis is that this is a single
geopolitical area ruled by one government,”
said B’Tselem director Hagai El-Ad. “This is
not democracy-plus-occupation. This is
apartheid between the river and the
sea…. B’Tselem argues that by dividing up
the territories and using different means of
control, Israel masks the underlying reality:
that roughly 7 million Jews and 7 million
Palestinians, who are mostly Muslims and
Christians, live under a single system with
vastly unequal rights. 
“We are not saying
that the degree of discrimination that a
Palestinian has to endure is the same if
one is a citizen of the state of Israel or if
one is besieged in Gaza,” El-Ad said. “The
point is that there isn’t a single square
inch between the river and the sea in which
a Palestinian and a Jew are equal.”]

Lynch, Mark and Shibley Telhami. “Here’s
how experts on the Middle East see the
region’s key issues, our new survey finds
We asked about their views on the
Israel-Palestine conflict, Iran’s nuclear
program and more,” Washington Post,
February 16, 2021. ["Last week, we
fielded a unique survey of scholars
with expertise in the Middle East….
Perhaps the starkest finding of the survey
is the collective assessment of the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict. A strong
majority, 59 percent, describes the current
reality for Israel and the Palestinians as
“a one-state reality akin to apartheid

Lynfield, Ben. "Marriage law divides Israeli
Arab families
Under new legislation, Arabs
from the occupied territories may no longer
join their spouses in Israel," Christian Science
Monitor, August 8, 2003.

Mac Allister, Karine. "Applicability of the
Crime of Apartheid to Israel
,” BDS and the
Global Anti-Apartheid Movement (Issue
No.38, Summer 2008)

Macintyre, Donald. “'This is like apartheid': ANC
veterans visit West Bank
,” Independent [UK],
July 11,2008.

Macintyre, Donald. “'Racist' marriage law
upheld by Israel
,” Independent [UK], October
22, 2011.

McCarthy, Rory. "Barak: make peace with
Palestinians or face apartheid
,” The Guardian
[UK], February 2, 2010. ["As long as in this
territory west of the Jordan river there is only
one political entity called Israel it is going to
be either non-Jewish, or non-democratic,”
Barak said. "If this bloc of millions of
Palestinians cannot vote, that will be an
apartheid state."]

McCarthy, Rory. "Occupied Gaza like apartheid
South Africa, says UN report
,” The Guardian [UK],
Febryary 23, 2007.

McGreal, Chris. "Brothers in arms - Israel’s
secret pact with Pretoria
,” The Guardian [UK],
February 7, 2006. ["During the second
world war the future South African prime
minister John Vorster was interned as a Nazi
sympathiser. Three decades later he was
being feted in Jerusalem. In the second part
of his remarkable special report, Chris
McGreal investigates the clandestine
alliance between Israel and the apartheid
regime, cemented with the ultimate gift
of friendship - A-bomb technology”]

McGreal, Chris. "Worlds apart,” The
Guardian [UK], February 6, 2006. [“Israelis
have always been horrified at the idea
of parallels between their country, a
democracy risen from the ashes of
genocide, and the racist system that
ruled the old South Africa. Yet even
within Israel itself, accusations persist
that the web of controls affecting every
aspect of Palestinian life bears a
disturbing resemblance to apartheid.
After four years reporting from
Jerusalem and more than a decade
from Johannesburg before that, the
Guardian's award-winning Middle East
correspondent Chris McGreal is
exceptionally well placed to assess
this explosive comparison. Here we
publish the first part of his
two-day special report”]

Mack, Eitay. "When Israel supported
boycotts against a white supremacist
. Israel not only boycotted Rhodesia
in the 1960s, it fully backed the armed
liberation movement that would eventually
overthrow its white-led regime,” +972,
March 10, 2021. [“(F)rom the moment Israel
occupied the Palestinian territories, its
honeymoon with African countries came
to an end, and the potential for partnership
with liberation movements and with global
struggles for freedom and equality was
greatly diminished. The new mantra of the
State of Israel became: “Do not interfere in
our internal affairs and we will not interfere
in yours.” …. The position of the State of
Israel — as read aloud by David Ramin in
1966 at the UN General Assembly — on the
importance of freedom, equality, the
independence of nations, and the use of
boycott sounds like science fiction today.”]

Massad, Joseph. "Israel has long been an
apartheid state. Admitting it now is too little,
too late
. Recent acknowledgements by human
rights advocates of Israel's Jewish-supremacist
policies deserve condemnation, not praise - as
they are coming far too late,” Middle East Eye,
May 6, 2021. ["What B’Tselem and HRW
pronounced in their recent reports was only
news to liberal Israeli Jews and the liberal
white US and European intelligentsia whose
commitment to Jewish settler-colonialism in
Palestine has never wavered. Such
pronouncements, however, should not
provoke appreciation or acknowledgment
by Palestinians and their supporters; rather,
they must elicit condemnation of these racist
Israeli and western human rights groups who,
in their recent reports, failed to acknowledge
their own racism and complicity with Israeli
apartheid over the decades, when they
insisted on being blind to Israeli apartheid
while it was in plain sight.”]

Massad, Joseph. "Israel’s right to be racist,”
Electronic Intifada, March 15, 2007. ["The only
thing Israel has asked for, and continues to ask
for in order to end the state of war with the
Palestinians and its Arab neighbors, is that all
recognize its right to be a racist state that
discriminates by law against Palestinians and
other Arabs and grants differential legal rights
and privileges to its own Jewish citizens and to
all other Jews anywhere. The resistance that
the Palestinian people and other Arabs have
launched against Israel's right to be a racist
state is what continues to stand between Israel
and the peace for which it has struggled and
to which it has been committed for decades.”]

Middle East Eye. "Former UN chief says
Israeli oppression 'arguably constitutes
/ Ban Ki-moon calls for a new
approach to the conflict that recognises
the 'fundamental asymmetry between the
parties,’” June 29, 2021. [“...[I]t has become
clear that Israel seeks to make its occupation
of the Palestinian territories and “structural
domination" of the Palestinian people
permanent. "This gives the dual legal
regimes imposed in Palestinian territories
by Israel - together with the inhumane and
abusive acts that are carried out against
Palestinians - new significance, resulting
in a situation that arguably constitutes
apartheid," he wrote.”]

Middle East Monitor. "Ex-Speaker
of the Israel Knesset gives up ‘Jewish
nationality' in protest over racist law
January 4, 2021. ["Former Speaker of
the Israeli Knesset, Avraham Burg, has
made the request to have his designation
as a Jew discarded in an extraordinary
affidavit where he has suggested that
belonging to the Jewish community in the
Zionist state was equivalent to “belonging
to the group of the masters”. Burg, who
also served as the country's interim president
and was head of the Jewish Agency, made
the incredible step in response to Israel’s
2018 Nation State Bill. Critics insist that
the law passed by the occupation state
has formalised apartheid.”]

Middle East Monitor. "Israel Democracy
Institute uncovers shocking racism
in 'apartheid state’
,” January 18, 2021.
["A report by the Israel Democracy Institute
has uncovered shocking levels of racism
among the country's Jewish citizens. Dubbed
the Democracy Index, the think tank's 2020
report has been released after a leading human
rights group branded Israel an apartheid state.
The institute found that nearly half of the
country's Jewish population support the idea
of having ethnically separate communities….
More entrenched racist attitudes were highlighted
by the respondents' answer to a question about
working in different communities. While 93 per
cent of the country's Palestinian population said
that they were willing to work in Jewish
communities, only 41 per cent of Jews said
that they were willing to do the reverse.
Similarly, two-thirds of Jewish respondents
(67 per cent) said that they are willing to work
under an Arab supervisor, while a huge
majority of Palestinian respondents (92
per cent) are willing to work for a
Jewish supervisor.”]

Middle East Monitor. "Israel is an
apartheid state so US should stop
aid, say Americans in poll,
” April 1,
2021. ["Carried out by IRmep earlier
in March, the poll asked whether, in
light of the B'Tselem report, Israel
should be a leading recipient of US aid.
Of those who responded, 38.1 per cent
said that Israel should not be a leading
recipient of aid. Just 33 per cent said
that it should continue to receive $3.8
billion per annum from Washington. The
differences are starker when looked at
on a regional basis: 43.4 per cent of
respondents from the north-east of
the US, 39.1 per cent from the mid-west
and 36.2 per cent from the west said
that such a level of US aid should stop.
With 36.1 per cent, those in the American
south are the most likely to want aid to
Israel to continue.”]

Mofeed. Omar. "Israeli apartheid can,
and will, be dismantled. This week marks
Israeli Apartheid Week where students and
people of conscience around the world join
together in a global protest against racism
and discrimination,” Mondoweiss, March 16,
2021. ["While a growing number of organizations
have caught up with us Palestinians in
recognizing apartheid, Israel has continued
to intensify its racist control and domination
of Palestinian lives; from accelerating the
demolition of Palestinian homes in the Occupied
Territory, to continuing to cripple Gaza under
a 15-year land, air, and sea blockade. But we
know racist discrimination isn’t limited to us
Palestinians. Around the world we see racism,
xenophobia, and discrimination grow, often
enabled by the Israeli state’s global allies. The
knee on the necks of racialized people, from
Ferguson to Khirbet Humsa, from Delhi to
Jerusalem, continues to suffocate oppressed

Mohamed, Mohamed. "Israel’s False, Apartheid
,” Palestine Center Brief No. 316
(July 20, 2018). ["Democracy in Israel never
died because it never existed in the first place.
A true democracy would not have over 50
discriminatory laws, many of which have been
passed recently, favoring one group of its citizens
(Jewish Israelis) over another (Palestinians). Until
Israel gets rid of the prejudice that is inherent to
its political system and plagues its society, it
should not complain about being labeled as an
apartheid state.”]

The Movement Against Israeli Apartheid
in Palestine. [
MAIAP history - see the link
“Anti-Apartheid Mobilization”]

Munayyer, Yousef. "Not All Israeli Citizens Are
,” New York Times, May 23, 2012. ["In the
1950s new laws permitted the state to take
control over Palestinians’ land by classifying
them “absentees.” Of course, it was the state
that made them absentees by either preventing
refugees from returning to Israel or barring
internally displaced Palestinians from having
access to their land. This last group was ironically
termed “present absentees” — able to see their
land but not to reach it because of military
restrictions that ultimately resulted in their
watching the state confiscate it. Until 1966,
Palestinian citizens were governed under martial
law. / Today, a Jew from any country can move
to Israel, while a Palestinian refugee, with a valid
claim to property in Israel, cannot. And although
Palestinians make up about 20 percent of Israel’s
population, the 2012 budget allocates less than 7
percent for Palestinian citizens. / Tragically for
Palestinians, Zionism requires the state to
empower and maintain a Jewish majority even at
the expense of its non-Jewish citizens, and the
occupation of the West Bank is only one part of it.
What exists today between the Jordan River and
the Mediterranean Sea is therefore essentially one
state, under Israeli control, where Palestinians
have varying degrees of limited rights: 1.5 million
are second-class citizens, and four million more
are not citizens at all. If this is not apartheid, then
whatever it is, it’s certainly not democracy.”]

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "HRW: Israel
commits crimes of apartheid and
,” Electronic Intifada, April 27,
2021. ["Human Rights Watch has now
joined a growing consensus finding
that “Jewish supremacy” – in the words
of the human rights group B’Tselem – is
Israel’s “single organizing principle.”
Israel has “pursued an intent to maintain
the domination of Jewish Israelis over
Palestinians throughout the territory it
controls,” Human Rights Watch concludes.
In the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip,
“the intent has been coupled with
systematic oppression of Palestinians
and inhumane acts committed against
them.” The combination of these three
elements “amount to the crime of
apartheid,” the group adds.”]

Murphy, Maureen Clare. "Top Israeli rights
group breaks “apartheid” taboo
,” Electronic
Intifada, January 13, 2021. ["One key aspect
of Israel’s apartheid rule overlooked in B’Tselem’s
position paper is the denial of Palestinian refugees’
right to return – a form of “demographic
engineering” recognized in the ESCWA report
suppressed by the UN. / 
“Israel defends its rejection
of the Palestinians’ return in frankly racist language,”
the ESCWA report states. “It is alleged that Palestinians
constitute a ‘demographic threat’ and that their return
would alter the demographic character of Israel to the
point of eliminating it as a Jewish state.” / The UN body
described Israel’s denial of the right of return as
“integral to the system of oppression and domination
of the Palestinian people as a whole.”]

Nassar, Tamara. "Israeli town halts property
sales after realizing most buyers were Palestinians
Electronic Intifada, March 21, 2018. [“Preventing
Palestinian citizens of Israel “from purchasing
homes due strictly to their national identity is an
illegitimate act,” Adalah added. “In a climate in
which the Israeli Knesset continues to promote
racist legislation targeting Arab citizens, Kfar
Vradim’s council leader feels emboldened to
promote racist policies and to trample the most
basic of democratic principles,” the group stated.”]

Nebehay, Stephanie. "U.N. rights envoy points to apartheid
in Palestinian areas
,” Reuters, February 24, 2014.

Ngleza, Bangsni and Adri Nieuwhof. Unrecognised
villages in the Negev expose Israel’s apartheid
,” Electronic Intifada, December 20, 2005.
["The similarities are striking between racially based
policies that lay behind the creation of white
settlements under the apartheid regime in South
Africa then and the estabslishment of Jewish
settlements by the Israeli government.”]

Nieuwhof, Adri. "Boycotting Israel more urgent than
in case of South Africa, says anti-apartheid veteran
Electronic Intifada, April 6, 2015.

Nieuwhof, Adri. "Israel has no right to be an
apartheid state, says Boycott From Within
,” Electronic Intifada, May 28, 2014.
["Ronnie Barkan: I am a white, male, privileged,
Israeli Jew. The first two characteristics are
decided by nature, the last are decided by the
state. It is important to mention that I am from
the privileged. This is the core we are talking
about. The State of Israel was founded on the
basis of ethnic cleansing, ethnic separation
and ethnic supremacy which was codified into
law. What started in ‘48 carried on under the
guise of the law, to take away the rights of
the others.“]

Nieuwhof, Adri. "South African activist: “Palestine
casts light on our own history
,” Electronic Intifada,
December 5, 2011. ["Israel was declared an apartheid
state during a session of the Russell Tribunal on
Palestine in Cape Town on 7 November. 
Among those
following the tribunal’s deliberations was a group of
young South Africans, including Mbuyiseni Ndlozi of
BDS South Africa, a group campaign for boycott,
divestment and sanctions against Israel, and Joni
Barnard of Artists Against Apartheid.”]

Nieuwhof, Adri. "South Africans recall their own
history during Israeli Apartheid Week
,” Electronic
Intifada, March 26, 2012. ["Israeli Apartheid Week
received broad support among political groups and
national organizations in South Africa. The
Congress of South African Trade Unions, the
South African Students’ Congress, the African
National Congress, the Young Communist League
of South Africa, the South African Council of
Churches, Kairos Southern Africa, Kaleidoscope
LGBTIA Youth Network and South African Artists
Against Apartheid were all motivated to participate
in IAW because of South Africa’s own history of
apartheid. The South African Council of Churches
called on all South Africans and the church in
South Africa to participate in Israeli Apartheid Week.”]

Ofir, Jonathan. "Israel can no longer shake off
the Apartheid label
,” Mondoweiss, February 5, 2020.
["Those who have made the comparison between
Israeli policy and Apartheid, have sometimes
regarded the Israeli case as worse: South African
law professor Prof. John Dugard, former special
rapporteur for the United Nations on the situation
of human rights in the Palestinian territories
…. Baleka Mbete, chair of the African National
Congress …. Israeli writer and journalist (Haaretz
contributor) Yitzhak Laor …. Professor
Noam Chomsky”]

Palestinian BDS National Committee
(BNC). "
Colonialism and Apartheid.” 

Paritzky, Yossi. "Our apartheid state,”
YNet, July 24, 2007.

Patel, Yumna. “In ‘watershed’ moment,
B’Tselem labels Israel ‘apartheid regime.’

The reality is that there are millions of
Palestinians and Israelis living under the
control of a single regime, but with vastly
unequal rights,” Mondoweiss, January 13, 2021.

Patel, Yumna. “Israel says vaccine equally
available to all citizens. But is that really the
 Israeli authorities are failing to provide
essential information on the vaccine in Arabic,
to establish vaccine centers in Palestinian
neighborhoods in East Jerusalem, and to
provide sufficient vaccines in Bedouin clinics
in the Negev. These failures are “not a
coincidence”, rights groups say,” Mondoweiss,
January 14, 2021.

Peteet, Julie. "The Work of Comparison:
Israel/Palestine and Apartheid
,” Anthropological
Vol. 89, No. 1 (Winter 2016),
pp. 247-281. ["
The article positions this
comparison in anthropological tradition and
tracks its genealogy. It fleshes out various
elements of comparison in South Africa and
Israel, states and societies constructed around
the edifice of classification, distinction, and
privilege. Central to human cognition and
meaning-making, these classifications— Arab
and Jew and Black and white— affected
inequality and fueled a hierarchical social
order pivoting around the designation of
citizens and subjects, the configuration of
space, and the distribution of rights.”]

Plitnick, Mitchell. "Biden Must Face the
Facts: Israel Is an Apartheid Regime
. The
leading human rights organization B’Tselem
has now joined others in making that claim—one
that will be difficult for the Biden administration
to ignore or dismiss,” The Nation, January 21,
2021. ["Although it has been tendentiously
argued by some defenders of Israel that neither
Palestinians nor Israelis constitute a “racial
group,” the United Nations has defined racial
discrimination as “any distinction, exclusion,
restriction or preference based on race, colour,
descent, or national or ethnic origin which has
the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing
the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an
equal footing, of human rights and fundamental
freedoms in the political, economic, social,
cultural or any other field of public life.”]

PSC-Cuny. "CUNY union condemns Israeli
Apartheid practices and calls for discussions
of BDS
. The CUNY staff congress that represents
30,000 members across the university system
passed a resolution calling out Israel as a
settler-colonial and apartheid state, and
committing to lead chapter discussions of
BDS in Fall 2021,” Mondoweiss, June 14, 2021.

Queers Against Israeli Apartheid. “Apartheid 101.”

Quigly, John. “Apartheid Outside Africa: The
Case of Israel
,” 2 Ind. International and
Comparative Law Review. 221, 1991-1992.

Rahman, Anjuman. "'Palestinians thinking
of liberation, should not only learn from South
Africa's past, but also its present
,’” Middle East
Monitor, February 8, 2021. ["I'm not entirely
convinced that our situation is any more different
or unique from what existed in South Africa during
apartheid," said Jarrar. "The Israeli government has
replicated, and in some ways, worsened the South
African version.” / "There is nothing complex about
the Palestinian situation," explained Jarrar. “Israel’s
rule over the Palestinian people, wherever they
reside, collectively amounts to a single regime of
apartheid. Palestinians living inside Israel can vote,
but cannot legally organise against the system of
Jewish supremacy. In East Jerusalem, Palestinians
have residency rights but not citizenship. Within
the West Bank, Palestinians live under military law
and have no citizenship. In the Gaza Strip,
Palestinians have no citizenship and they are
imprisoned in that tiny area.”]

Rapoport, Meron. "With annexation plan
looming, Israel grapples with reality of apartheid
For decades, Israel was able to skirt around
the issue of Palestinians’ rights under
occupation. But as Netanyahu gears up for
annexation, can these questions continue
to be swept under the rug?” Middle East
Eye, June 24, 2020. ["But why have
Netanyahu and his allies among the
settlers - with the acquiescence of the
Blue and White party of Benny Gantz,
with whom Netanyahu has formed a
coalition government - decided to give
up their policy of de facto annexation
for a de jure one? Many settlers feel
that the battle to prevent the
establishment of a Palestinian state
has been won in their favour, and that
it is therefore time to move to the
next stage.”]

Rettman, Andrew. "No EU cost for Israeli
'apartheid' in West Bank
,” EUobserver,
February 1, 2019. ["Alon Liel, a former
Israeli diplomat, said Israel was doing to
Palestinians what South Africa did to blacks
before its apartheid regime fell in 1991. /
"The West Bank legal regime is a form of
institutionalised racial segregation. A simpler
description would be apartheid," he told this
website. / "I was Israel's ambassador to South
Africa, so I have a basis to compare," Liel, who
held the post in Pretoria from 1992 to 1994,
and who later became director of Israel's foreign
ministry, said. / South Africa emancipated blacks
in part due to Western economic sanctions.”]

Reuters. "Israel imposes 'apartheid regime’ on
Palestinians: U.N. report
,” March 15, 2017.

Robert, Stephen. "Apartheid on Steroids,”
The Nation, August 12, 2011. ["While the
world’s statesmen have dithered, Israel has
created a system of apartheid on steroids, a
horrifying prison with concrete walls as high
as twenty-six feet, topped with body-ravaging
coils of razor wire….How can Jews, who have
been persecuted for centuries, tolerate this
inhumanity? Where is their moral compass?
How can this situation be acceptable to
Judaism’s spiritual and political leaders?”]

Rundle, Guy. "This is apartheid, plain and
simple. Supporters of Israel hate the apartheid
comparison, but which other government does
it most resemble?” Crikey, May 17, 2018. [“Israel’s
supporters hate the apartheid government
comparison, but which other government does
it most resemble? What is this but Sharpeville
redux? The only difference? Apartheid South
Africa was surrounded by sanctions, which
ultimately persuaded business to pressure
the government to make a transition.”]

Russel Tribunal on Palestine. "Submission to
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial
Discrimination (CERD) in its review of Israel’s
14th  to 16th periodic reports to the committee
January 2012. ["The findings of the Russell Tribunal
on Palestine suggest multiple grounds to refute
the claim that no apartheid or segregation practices
exist under Israeli jurisdiction. The Tribunal made
findings in respect of Israel’s policies and practices
by reference to three core elements of the definition
of apartheid as drawn from its common elements
under the International Convention on the Elimination
of all forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), the
International Convention on the Suppression and
Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (the Apartheid
Convention) and the Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court: o the presence of two distinct racial
groups o the commission of acts defined as ‘inhuman
acts’ of apartheid o the institutionalised nature of
domination by one group over another….The existence
of ‘racial groups’ is fundamental to the question of
apartheid. The situation in Israel/Palestine is not
defined in terms of traditional conceptions of ‘race’
as it was in apartheid South Africa. On the basis of
expert evidence heard during the Cape Town session,
the Tribunal concluded that international law (including
as applied in ICERD) gives a broad meaning to the term
‘racial’ as including elements of ethnic and national
origin, and therefore that the definition of ‘racial group’
is a sociological rather than biological one. Perceptions
(including self-perceptions and external perceptions) of
Israeli Jewish identity and Palestinian identity illustrate
that Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs can readily be
defined as distinct racial groups for the purposes of the
prohibition of apartheid under international law. From
the evidence received, it was clear to the jury that two
distinct, identifiable groups exist ina very practical sense
and that the legal definition of ‘racial group’ applies to
all circumstances in which the Israeli authorities have
jurisdiction over Palestinians.”]

Sarid, Yossi. "Yes, It Is Apartheid,” Haaretz,
April 24, 2008.

Said, Edward. The Question of Palestine,
Times Books, New York, New York,
January 2, 1979.  

Sayegh, Fayez. “Zionist Colonialism in
,” Palestine Monographs, Research
Center, Palestine Liberation Organization,
Beirut, Lebanon, 1965. ["
For, whereas the
Afrikaner apostles of apartheid in South Africa,
for example, brazenly proclaim their sin,
the Zionist practitioners of apartheid in
Palestine beguilingly protest
their innocence!”]

Schocken, Amos. "Citizenship law makes
Israel an apartheid state
We do not have to
identify the characteristics of South African
apartheid in the civil rights discrimination
in Israel in order to call Israel an apartheid
state. It is best that we not try to evade the
truth: The Citizenship Law's existence turns
Israel into an apartheid state, Haaretz, June
27, 2008.

Sfard, Michael. "Yes, It’s Israeli Apartheid.
Even Without Annexation
,” Haaretz, July 9,
2020. ["In recent months, I have studied the
issue in depth and, in a legal opinion I authored
for the Yesh Din rights group, I came to a
disheartening conclusion on this term’s relevancy
for describing the type of control wielded by Israel
in the West Bank. Yes, even without annexation….In
other words, apartheid is a regime that, using all
the tools at its disposal – law, policy, practice – creates
the superiority of one group and imposes inferiority
on another, usually manifested in institutional
discrimination regarding rights and resources.
Contrary to popular belief, in international law,
a racial group is defined in accordance with
sociopolitical classifications, not biological-genetic
ones, thus the definition encompasses national
or ethnic origin. It’s not enough to impose
inferiority on such a group; a condition for
committing the crime is that the superiority
is not temporary but meant to be permanent.’]

Shalabi, Malak. "Call it what it is – ApartheidIsrael.
The groundbreaking Human Rights Watch
Report confirms what Palestinians have been
calling Israel for years: ApartheidIsrael,”
Mondoweiss, April 28, 2021.  [“Esteemed
Palestinian human rights attorney, professor,
and author Noura Erakat coined the term
“ApartheidIsrael”, “one word reflective of its
singular system of domination over all
Palestinian lives without regard to false
partitions and various judicial regimes.”]

Sharon Smith. “Israel’s apartheid at 60,”
Socialist Worker, May 22,2008.

Sharp, Heather. "Families fight 'racist’ Israeli
citizenship law
,” BBC News, March 9, 2010.

Shlaim, Avi. "Settlements turned Israel into
apartheid state
. Historian tells London summit
Zionism went wrong by replacing universalism
with 'religious messianism,'
" Haaretz,
November 21, 2008.

Siegman, Henry. "Imposing Middle East Peace.
Forceful outside intervention is the only alternative
to an unstable and dangerous status quo,” The
Nation, January 7, 2010. ["Israel has crossed the
threshold from “the only democracy in the Middle
East” to the only apartheid regime in the Western

Silverstein, Richard. “Israeli NGO: Israel Is an
Apartheid Regime
,” Jacobin Magazine, January
22, 2021. ["The report roundly rejects an
argument favored by bastions of liberal Zionism
like Haaretz, the Zionist Left Meretz, and J Street:
that Israel within the Green Line is a democracy,
while everything beyond it is an unjust usurpation
of Palestinian rights to statehood. This conception
views Israel and the Occupied Territories as two
separate entities — Israel good, occupation bad.
B’Tselem now rejects this duality. It also rejects
the claim that Israel is a democracy: because equal
rights are denied to Palestinian citizens based
on religion or ethnicity.”]

Sprusansky, Dale. "Barghouti Discusses
Israeli Apartheid, BDS Campaign
,” Washington
Report on Middle East Affairs, May 2012, Pages
71-72. ["With regard to Israeli apartheid, Barghouti
noted that last November the Russell Tribunal on
Palestine concluded that "Israel's rule over the
Palestinian people, wherever they reside,
collectively amounts to a single integrated
regime of apartheid….Comparing apartheid
in South Africa and Israel, Barghouti pointed
out that 93 percent of Israel's non-occupied
land is effectively for Jews only, while 86
percent of the land was off-limits to blacks
in South Africa.”]

St. John, Ronald Bruce. "Apartheid By Any Other
,” CounterPunch, February 2, 2007.

Sherwood, Harriet. "Palestinians draw parallels with
Mandela's anti-apartheid struggle
,” The Guardian
[UK], December 12, 2013.

Tatour, Lana. "Why calling Israel an apartheid
state is not enough
. Report from B’Tselem
highlighting Israel's apartheid character is a
welcome development, but this finding cannot
be divorced from the state's oppressive
settler-colonialism,” Middle East Eye, January
18, 2021.

Telhami, Shibley. "What do Americans think
of the BDS movement, aimed at Israel?

Brookings Institute, January 8, 2020.
[BDSMvt.: “A 2019 poll shows that the
US public stronglysupports the
#RightToBoycott, in contrast with
elected US representatives' efforts to
restrict that right and #BDS. 
According to
the poll, 72% oppose laws penalizing
people who boycott Israel.]

Thrall, Nathan. "The Separate Regimes
Delusion: Nathan Thrall on Israel’s apartheid
London Review of Books, Vol 43 No 2, January 21, 2021.
[“...millions of Palestinians continue to be deprived
of basic civil rights and subjected to military rule.
With the exception of those six months in 1966-67,
this has been the reality for the majority of
Palestinians living under Israeli control for the
entire history of the state. South Africa’s apartheid
lasted 46 years. Israel’s is at 72, and counting.”]

Tinguely, E. E. "The Apartheid Paradigm,”
Medium.com, August 26, 2019. [“Wintemute asserts
that the Israeli concept of hafrada, Hebrew for ‘separation’,
serves an almost exactly identical role as ‘apartheid’, and
rejects the assertion that there are no similarities
between the two systems as absurd. He further
argues that “apartheid serves as a useful…
shorthand for the universally applicable human
rights violation that can be found at its core:
racial discrimination in access to citizenship
and the right to vote”, due to its wide
recognizability internationally. I find
Wintemute’s analysis to be well situated
in a broad academic context, drawing from
both sides of this “debate” as well as tracking
decades of international humanitarian law
and resolutions regarding Israel-Palestine.
Drawing as well from anti-discrimination law
rather than a purely humanitarian perspective,
Wintemute makes the point that regardless of
analogy, the treatment of Palestinians is clearly
and convincingly a policy of racial discrimination.
Were Israel beholden to European international law
such as the European Convention on Human
Rights, Wintemute concludes, “there now exists
ample case law of the [European Courts of Human
Rights] that would allow Palestinians to seek
relief from Israel’s racial discrimination
against them”.]

Tutu, Desmond. "Apartheid in the Holy Land,”
April 28, 2002.

Walt, Brian. "As a Rabbi Raised in South Africa,
I Can’t Ignore Israel Is an Apartheid State
Truthout, February 17, 2021. ["I know what
apartheid is, and I was seeing it in front
of me.”]

War on Want. "Israeli apartheid factsheet,”
January 12, 2021.

Weiss, Philip. "Big brave Charney
Bromberg says… it’s apartheid
Mondoweiss, May 4, 2010. 

Weiss, Philip. "B’Tselem’s verdict is
in long tradition: Israeli apartheid
pronouncements ignored by MSM
Mondoweiss, February 16, 2021. [“The
New York Times and other US mainstream
media have ignored the report. Liberal
Zionist groups that have an ear in the
Democratic Party have avoided the topic
like the plague, because they know that
“apartheid” means one thing — BDS,
boycott, divestment, and sanctions — the
economic pressure that pro-Israel groups
call antisemitic. The cold shoulder for
B’Tselem is nothing new….I thought it
would be a service to list many of these
apartheid judgments, with the aim of
showing how long experts have been
reaching this conclusion–and how little
effect they have had, so far anyway.”]

Weiss, Philip. "Israel is not South
Africa! is liberal Zionist response
to HRW’s ‘apartheid’ charge,”
Mondoweiss, May 7, 2021.
["Rightwing Jewish organizations
are blasting the report as
antisemitic. But liberal Zionists
are issuing, We-need-to-look-at-this
statements that reject HRW’s
conclusion — “apartheid” — but do
say that HRW is “sounding the alarm”
about abuses in the occupation….HRW
has a Q-and-A that directly addresses
the question. Are you comparing Israel
to South Africa? No, HRW says: every
situation is different. [:]
 Over the years…
in international law, the international
community has detached the term
apartheid from its original South
African context and developed a
universal legal prohibition against
its practice. Irrespective of where it
is committed, apartheid is a crime
against humanity with a definition
set out in the 1973 International
Convention on the Suppression
and Punishment of the Crime of
Apartheid and the 1998 Rome Statute
of the International Criminal Court
(ICC), the latter drafted after the end
of apartheid in South Africa. Human
Rights Watch has concluded that Israeli
officials have committed the crime of
apartheid under the legal standards
set out in these instruments and not
on the basis of any comparison with
the situation in South Africa."

Weiss, Philip. "Strong majority of foreign
policy experts say Israel/Palestine is ‘akin
to apartheid’
; 52 percent of Middle East
scholars say the two-state solution is no
longer possible. 59 percent say the current
reality is "akin to apartheid,” Mondoweiss,
February 23, 2021. ["The Washington Post
published the findings as a survey of “experts”
but managed to not mention the key
findings in the headline.”]

Weiss, Philip. "Two former Israeli
ambassadors to South Africa join tsunami
of ‘apartheid’ accusations against Israel,”
Mondoweiss, June 8, 2021. ["This is yet
another apartheid charge leveled by serious
people in what Al Haq has said is the
“mounting recognition” and “mainstreaming
of the legal analysis of apartheid over the
Palestinian people as a whole.”]

White, Ben. "UN report: Israel has established an ‘apartheid
Report breaks new ground on the UN’s examination
of the situation in occupied Palestine by using the word
‘apartheid,’ Al Jazeera, March 18, 2017.

Winstanley, Asa. "Israeli cities impose
beach apartheid on Palestinians
,” Electronic
Intifada, August 13, 2021. ["This is far from
the first time that Israeli authorities have
imposed “petty apartheid” on Palestinians.
In 2019 the Israeli mayor of the city of Afula
effectively banned Palestinians from a local
park, including even Palestinian citizens of
Israel….In 2013 a public Israeli swimming
pool refused entry to a group of children with
cancer just because they were Arab. And a year
earlier, Palestinians were turned away from an
Israeli-run Dead Sea beach resort, while Jewish
Israelis, European tourists and even dogs
were allowed to enter freely.”]

Winstanley, Asa. "It's time to admit that
Israel is an apartheid state
,” Middle East
Monitor, April 24, 2018. ["The UN document
points out that, although the word apartheid
is of Afrikaans origin, the wider practice is a
more general one of systemic racism which
applies to regimes beyond South Africa. For a
start, other white supremacist regimes in Africa
had extremely similar practices, such as Rhodesia,
as Zimbabwe was once called. / The definition of
apartheid under the convention makes it clear
that Israel's occupation regime in the West Bank
is an apartheid model.”]

Winstanley, Asa. "Why Israel is a settler-colony,”
Middle East Monitor, January 23, 2021. ["Those of
us using the term apartheid to describe Israel are
not claiming that the histories of South Africa and
Palestine are identical. That is not the point. There
are, however, many similarities. / As I've argued in
previous columns, the main point is simply that
Israel fits the definition of apartheid under
international law – which applies globally, and not
just in southern Africa. / The second claim is also
incorrect in my view. While Israel's unambiguous
military dictatorship as applied to the three million
Palestinians of the West Bank is not enforced on the
Palestinian citizens of Israel, nonetheless, the latter
are still subjected to an apartheid regime. / They are
at best second-class citizens. Although they have
voting rights (which Black people under South African
apartheid did not), under Israeli law they are very much
treated as inferior to Jewish Israeli citizens. / The so-called
"Nation-State Law" of 2018 was only the most brazen
manifestation of that reality.Palestinian human rights
group Adalah (Arabic for"justice") maintains a database
of the many Israeli laws which discriminate against the
state’snon-Jewish Arab citizens.”]

Yesh Din [Volunteers for Human Rights].
The Occupation of the West Bank and
the Crime of Apartheid: Legal Opinion
July 9, 2020.

Zahalka, Jamal. 'New Laws Legalize Apartheid in
Israel.' Report from a Palestine Center briefin
For the Record, No. 116, June 11, 2002

Israeli Apartheid Week

Israel is an Apartheid State

"A protester carries a sign during a demonstration by Palestinian,
Israeli and foreign protesters against the newly-opened Route 4370,
on January 23, 2019, in the occupied West Bank. - The highway into
Jerusalem divides Israeli and Palestinian drivers into separate lanes
with a wall, leading Palestinians to label it an "apartheid road". Its
western side serves Palestinians, who cannot enter Jerusalem,
whereas the roads eastern side serves settlers, who can now reach
northern Jerusalem. (Photo by ABBAS MOMANI / AFP) (Photo credit
should read ABBAS MOMANI/AFP via Getty Images)"

klepfisz - Isr Apatheid

37133166 1118107458342590 3 med hr

Shulamit Aloni on Israeli Apartheid

Who Can Vote

[Also denied voting rights: Palestinian
refugees in the diaspora who wish to be
citizens, but unlike diaspora Jews,
are denied the right of return …]

Ahmed Kathrada, Veteran Anti-Aparthied activist
and former Robben Island political prisoner

Discussion: Israeli Apartheid Week with Ali Abunimah [2018]

Dr Tlaleng Mofokeng on Isr apartheid

Dr. Tlaleng Mofokeng, South African physician, and
the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health

Apartheid Road

Palestinian and Israeli activists   Photo: Oren Ziv/Activestills.org

"This duty is all the more compelling when we’re no
longer talking about temporary violations of international
law, fleeting war crimes or a military occupation like any
other. When the occupation becomes apartheid and defines
the identity of the state, international action is required – yes,
just as happened with South Africa. What worked there
could work here too.”
– Gideon Levy, "The Duty to End Israeli
," Haaretz,  January 21, 2021

Diana Buttu: “It’s Apartheid” [2020]



"New poll: 25% of U.S. Jews think Israel is apartheid state.
A quarter of Jewish voters polled by the Jewish Electorate
Institute said they believed Israel is an apartheid state.
This number rises to 38% for voters under 40.” — Michael
Arria, Mondoweiss,  July 13, 2021.

It’s apartheid, say Israeli ambassadors to South Africa [6/8/21]

Why are we still silent

Noura Erakat Responds to Trump's Apartheid Plan

"A letter signed by 452 civil society groups worldwide                                                                                                   launched a global campaign calling on the UN to                                                                                                             assume its responsibility for investigating and                                                                                                               eradicating Israeli apartheid, as it did with apartheid                                                                                                             in Southern Africa"

Ilan Baruch and Alon Liel: "It’s apartheid, say Israeli
ambassadors to South Africa
. It is clearer than ever
that the occupation is not temporary, and there is
not the political will in the Israeli government to
bring about its end.” 

Apartheid Road

Route 4370, dubbed the “apartheid road’
because its western side serves Palestinians,
who cannot enter Jerusalem, whereas the eastern
side serves settlers, who can, West Bank, 2019" /
Thomas Coex, AFP via Getty Images

"Ben White, Guardian journalist and author of ‘Israeli
Apartheid: A beginner's guide' comes to Goldsmiths
and speaks on the reasons why Israeli should be
classified as an apartheid state.”  [2013]

Beware of Natives

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JVP letter to NYT

"In case you missed it, read JVP Executive Director
Stefanie Fox's letter to the editor that was printed
in the New York Times this weekend! She was
responding to a deeply flawed article on Zoom
and campus fights for Palestinian rights."

FaridEsack I

“It Is Apartheid”: Rights Group B’Tselem on How
Israel Advances Jewish Supremacy Over Palestinians”/
Hagai El-Ad, executive director of the human rights
group B’Tselem, describes the findings of their report
that details how Israel is committing “apartheid.”
Israel’s treatment of Palestinians is “not complicated,”
El-Ad says. “Believe your eyes. Follow your conscience.
The reason that it looks like apartheid is simply
because it is apartheid.” We get response from Israeli
journalist Gideon Levy, columnist for the newspaper
Haaretz and a member of its editorial board, who
wrote a recent piece, “We Can Keep Lying to Ourselves
on 'Apartheid,' but Israel Has Crossed the Line.” We also
speak to Noura Erakat, Palestinian human rights
attorney and legal scholar."

Scottish Parliment Protest

"Richard Falk, former UN Special Rapporteur on
Human Rights in the Occupied Territories professor
emeritus of international law at Princeton University,
speaking at Sydney University on July 5, 2019 on
Israeli apartheid. He was in conversation with
Fahad Ali at a forum on 'Israeli apartheid,” 

Zwelivelile Mandela, the grandson of
Nelson Mandela​, describes Israel​ as an
apartheid state

"Dozens of new Apartheid Free Zones declared around
the world. / From Mexico to France, from Brazil to
Canada and beyond, dozens of new spaces join the
#ApartheidFreeZones campaign in response to the
Palestinian call for mutual support and international
solidarity.” [6/11/21]

Max Blumenthal: Birthright-Israel and the
Whitewashing of Apartheid

In Soweto, South Africa

In Soweto, South Africa

"It's called apartheid" - Rep. Betty McCollum on
Israel [2018]

"Namibia knows a thing or two about Apartheid. For
decades, South Africa illegally occupied Namibia and
imposed its Apartheid policies upon the country.
Namibians finally won their independence from
Apartheid South Africa in 1990. Now, Namibia is
calling out Israel for the same discriminatory policies
that it used to suffer from. Earlier this month at the
United Nations Human Rights Council, the
Ambassador for Namibia criticized Israel’s
"practice of institutionalized discrimination
and apartheid against the Palestinian people.”
Going even further, Namibia called for the
restoration of the United Nations Special
Committee on Apartheid (which used to
coordinate international action against South
Africa), in order to implement the Apartheid
Convention to the Palestinian situation!"

HRW Israeli Apartheid

“Omar Badder: Decoding Israel/Palestine: Apartheid” [2015] 

Former South African MP Andrew
Feinstein: "Israel is a Racist, Apartheid
State. I should know, I grew up in one” [2020] 

"In January 2017, at the United Nations, South Africa
slammed Israel as "the only state in the world that
can be called an apartheid state." 

"Webinar with B'Tselem's executive director
Hagai El-Ad, and renowned Palestinian lawyer
and commentator Diana Buttu"

Africa for Palestine

Prof. Joseph Massad on 'Nation Law:
Israeli Apartheid State’ [2019]

"#Africa4Palestine​ webinar series: Ronnie Barkan,
a longtime Jewish Israeli activist and math teacher
joins the webinar series to talk about “Israeli
Apartheid From an Israeli Perspective."

Global South leaders call on UN to investigate
Israeli apartheid / "Hundreds of Global South
leaders are supporting demands for a UN investigation
of Israel’s apartheid, and for sanctions and ending
trade ties with Israel. Jessie Duarte (South Africa),
Claudia Mix (Chile), Elamaram Kareem (India) and
Nora Cortiñas (Argentina) send that message to
the United Nations General Assembly” [2020]

"Israeli Apartheid through South African Eyes
with Professor Farid Esack” [2020]

"Al-Shabaka analysts Yara Hawari and Diana
Buttu weigh in on the usefulness of the
Apartheid framework in the Palestinian context.” [2018]

Israelis Against Apartheid: "An Open Letter to
the International Community
” / "As individuals who
belong to the the side of the oppressor, and that
have tried for years to shift public opinion in Israel
in order to change the foundations of the current
regime, we have long come to the conclusion that it
is impossible to change the Jewish supremacist
regime without external intervention.” / Petition 

Queers Against Israeli Apartheid

"Calling the Thing by its Proper Name: “Apartheid” Between
the Jordan River & the Mediterranean Sea” / Foundation for
Middle East Peace
: “With the occupation - and the separate-
and-unequal regimes it involves - now in its 54th year, and
with the 28 year-old peace process paradigm and its
two-state solution rendered obsolete by Israeli facts on the
ground (established expressly for that purpose), and with
the Nation-State law codifying discrimination against
Palestinians as a constitutional principle of the state of
Israel, the question has salience today, both with respect
to injecting honesty into the discussion around Israel-Palestine
and to injecting energy, focus, and urgency into the fight for
justice, human rights, freedom, and peace. To discuss this
question, FMEP is proud to host Hagai El-Ad, Executive
Director of Israel’s premier human rights organization
B’tselem, which recently published a ground-breaking
paper entitled, “A regime of Jewish supremacy from the
Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid;”
Sawsan Zaher, Deputy General Director of Adalah, the Legal
Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel and who was part
of Adalah's legal team presenting oral arguments before the
Israeli High Court of Justice in the petition against the
Nation-State Law; and Nathan Thrall, an author and
journalist who recently published an essay entitled, “The
Separate Regimes Delusion
.” / [2021]

Israel: Apartheid Not Democracy - A Talk by Ben White /
"Journalist and activist, Ben White, talks about Israeli apartheid
and segregation in this event hosted by Liverpool Friends of
Palestine on the 11th of December 2014"

"Picnic video exposes both faces of Israeli
apartheid” / "Israel upholds a system of Jewish
supremacy over the land, and it doesn't matter
whether those challenging its apartheid rule are
Palestinian subjects without rights or “Arab”
citizens supposedly with full rights.” — Jonathan Cook

Rev. Eddie Makue: "Separate Is Never Equal:
Stories of Apartheid from South Africa to Palestine” / Part 1 [2008] 

Rev. Eddie Makue: "Separate Is Never Equal:
Stories of Apartheid from South Africa to Palestine” / Part 2 [2008] 

Don't "Single out" South africa

"Israel Legislates Apartheid into Law” / “TRNN's
Shir Hever explains that Israel's new Law of the
Nation-State makes it impossible to pretend that
Israel is a democracy. Unequal rights are
recognized by the government as the essence
of the state” [2018]

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"Co-produced by the Palestine Solidarity
Campaign and Makan, this video explores
the apartheid reality faced by Palestinians
on the ground in the West Bank, the Gaza
Strip, in Israel and in exile.” [2021]

Race, the Floating Signifier: Featuring Stuart Hall

Apartheid Tel Aviv


"I realized that my job was actually to maintain
an apartheid system." 

"Israeli Apartheid Introduction" - Susan Abulhawa.
Also see "Introduction to Israeli Apartheid,” by
Susan Abulhawa, in Washington Report on Middle
East Affairs [WRMEA], June-July 2021.

The Crime of Apartheid

Separating Jews and Palestinians

Intent to Dominate

Systematic Oppression

Inhumane Acts